12 Surprising Facts About Manatees

iStock.com/fmajor
iStock.com/fmajor

In August 2015, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service temporarily closed Three Sisters Springs in Crystal River, Florida after more than 300 manatees rapidly moved into the springs. “We have a record number this year,” Laura Ruettiman, an environmental education guide at the Springs, told USA TODAY at the time. “We have 150 more manatees here than have ever been recorded in the past.” In honor of Manatee Appreciation Day, here are a few things you might not have known about these cute, cuddly aquatic mammals.

  1. "Manatee" comes from the Carab word manti, meaning “breast, udder.” These docile creatures are also called sea cows.
  1. Manatees live in coastal waters and rivers, and they’re the ocean’s largest herbivores: An adult can grow up to 13 feet long and weigh as much as 1300 pounds—and can consume 10 to 15 percent of its body weight in vegetation each day.
  1. Using their powerful tails, manatees can swim for short bursts at 15 mph. However, the placid animals are usually content to cruise along at 5 mph.
  1. There are three species of manatee: West Indian (Trichechus manatus), West African (Trichechus senegalensis), and Amazonian (Trichechus inunguis). The aquatic mammals belong to the order Sirenia, which also includes the dugong (Dugong dugon) and the Steller's sea cow, which was declared extinct in 1768 due to overhunting.
    A manatee swimming in Florida's Crystal Spring river
    iStock.com/33karen33
  1. According to a ship log dated January 9, 1493, Christopher Columbus himself said that on the previous day he “distinctly saw three mermaids, which rose well out of the sea; but they are not so beautiful as they are said to be, for their faces had some masculine traits.” Columbus wasn’t the only sailor to spot mermaids in the water. The reason they weren’t as beautiful as he might have imagined is because they were actually manatees.
  1. Though they can hold their breath while submerged for 15 to 20 minutes, manatees usually surface every three to five minutes to breathe. With a single breath, manatees can replace 90 percent of the air in their lungs; humans, by comparison, replace just 10 percent.
  1. Back in 2012, a woman was arrested in Florida for riding a manatee. Why the drastic measure? Because West Indian manatees are protected by the Manatee Sanctuary Act, which states that it’s against the law for “any person at any time, by any means, or in any manner intentionally or negligently to annoy, molest, harass, or disturb or attempt to molest, harass, or disturb” the endangered animals. Yes, that includes riding one.
  1. Manatees are closely related to two land mammals: the hyrax and the elephant. While most animals have a heart that has a point, elephants and manatees have hearts that are rounded on the bottom.
    A manatee peeks its nose out of the water
    iStock.com/benedek
  1. The endangered animals are threatened by a number of things, including toxic red tide and run-ins with watercraft. According to Florida Today, 361 of Florida’s West Indian manatees died in 2014; 19 percent of the overall death toll came from watercraft.
  1. Manatees have 2000 thick, whisker-like hairs called vibrissae on their faces, and 3000 on their bodies. These innervated follicles help the manatee sense and explore the world around it.
  2. The manatee has a smooth brain, and the smallest brain of all mammals in relation to its body mass. But that doesn’t mean they’re stupid: According to a 2006 article in The New York Times on the work of Roger L. Reep, a neuroscientist at the University of Florida at Gainesville, manatees are “as adept at experimental tasks as dolphins, though they are slower-moving and, having no taste for fish, more difficult to motivate.”
    A manatee swimming at Three Sisters Springs
    iStock.com/tobiasfrei
  3. Manatees are nearsighted and can see in blue, green, and gray—but not red, or blue-green combinations!

9 Tiny Facts About the Chevrotain

Dave Curtis, Flickr // CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
Dave Curtis, Flickr // CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

With a round body, spindly legs, and long fangs, this odd creature gives the platypus a run for its money. Also known as the mouse deer, chevrotains are shy and mysterious, and not much is known about them. But here's what we do know.

1. Chevrotains are not mice, nor are they deer.

Lesser mouse deer or chevrotain
BirdHunter591/iStock via Getty Images

At first glance, these animals look like a weird mash-up of a deer, a mouse, and a pig. Mouse deer share a suborder with deer (Ruminantia) but are not considered “true deer.” They have their own family, Tragulidae.

2. Chevrotain species vary by weight.

Mouse deer in Thailand
MonthiraYodtiwong/iStock via Getty Images

These creatures are way smaller than any deer. Depending on the species, a chevrotain can weigh anywhere from 4 to 33 pounds. The smallest species is the lesser Malay, while the largest is the water chevrotain. No species gets any larger than a small dog.

3. There are a lot of different kinds of chevrotains.

Mouse deer
aee_werawan/iStock via Getty Images

This tiny animal comes in many variations. The family has been classified into two genera: true chevrotains (Hyemoschus) and the mouse deer (Tragulus). The spotted mouse deer are still very mysterious, so scientists have placed them in their own genus called Moschiola. Despite being categorized in different genera, they all share a similar look.

4. Chevrotain fangs are fiercer than Dracula's.

Chevrotain in a woodland
BirdHunter591/iStock via Getty Images

Open up a chevrotain’s mouth and you’ll find two long fangs. They're especially elongated in males, which use the needle-like canines to stab each other. Thanks to an extra thick coat and robust muscles around the neck and rump, these adorable fighters are protected from bites during combat.

5. Some consider the chevrotain a living fossil.

Chevrotain sticking its tongue out
Josh More, Flickr // CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

Chevrotains are the most primitive of ruminants. Like deer and similar hoofed animals, they have even-toed hooves and a multi-chambered stomach. But unlike deer, chevrotains have a three-chambered stomach instead of four, and they lack horns or antlers. They haven't changed or evolved much during their time on Earth. Scientists see them as an evolutionary link between ruminants and non-ruminants.

6. Taking a dip is the water chevrotain's best defense.

The water chevrotain is known for its ability to dive underwater when it senses a predator nearby. The miniature swimmers scrunch up and walk on the bottom of rivers and streams to prevent being picked up by the current. If there are any reeds or plants around, the animals will grab them to stay tethered. Chevrotains are able to hold their breath for about four minutes.

While hiding from hungry predators, the water chevrotain can reemerge to get some air before diving back down. Still, the animal tires easily, and can only swim for short periods of time.

7. Childbirth is an expedited experience for chevrotains.

Chevrotain in a woodland
aee_werawan/iStock via Getty Images

After getting pregnant, a female chevrotain will carry the offspring for five to nine months, depending on the species. The baby can usually stand on its own within one hour of being born. Mothers will visit their young periodically for feedings and stand on three legs while nursing.

Chevrotains are known for their ability to be almost continuously pregnant—greater and lesser Malay mouse deer can mate again only a few hours after giving birth.

8. Chevrotains are shy wallflowers.

Chevrotain in a woodland
cowboy5437/iStock via Getty Images

Due to their small size, chevrotains are preyed upon by many different animals. Lacking antlers or horns for protection, the tiny animals are forced to lead secluded lives. Some species are nocturnal and very rarely seen. Chevrotains are very shy and often graze alone, only coming together to mate. They communicate with a series of smells and noises; this timid behavior makes it difficult for scientists to study them.

9. Chevrotain hooves make a lot of noise.

Chevrotain in a woodland
asxsoonxas/iStock via Getty Images

Although normally peaceful, a male will angrily beat his hooves when agitated—they can stomp around four to seven times a second. This “drum roll” technique wards off predators and warns other chevrotains in the area that there’s danger.

Additional sources: "Water Chevrotain," Amazing Animals of the World; "Chevrotains (Tragulidae)," Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia; Mammals IV, Gale Virtual Reference Library

'Lost Species' of Tiny, Rabbit-Sized Deer Photographed in Vietnam for the First Time in 30 Years

Global Wildlife Conservation
Global Wildlife Conservation

The silver-backed chevrotain, also called the Vietnamese mouse-deer, is elusive. It's so elusive that scientists had feared it was extinct after none had been photographed for decades. But as The Washington Post reports, the first images taken of the mammal in nearly 30 years prove that the species is still alive in the woods of Vietnam.

No larger than small dogs, chevrotains are the tiniest ungulates, or hoofed animals, on Earth. They have vampire-like fangs and skinny legs that support their bodies. Silver-backed chevrotains are characterized by the silver sheen of their tawny coat.

The tiny population native to Vietnam has been devastated by poachers in recent decades. That, and the animal's natural shyness, make it incredibly difficult to study. Before this most recent sighting, the last time scientists had recorded one was in 1990.

Global Wildlife Conservation, the Southern Institute of Ecology, and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research teamed up in hopes of documenting the lost species. Researchers interviewed residents and government forest rangers in the Vietnamese city of Nha Trang about the silver-backed chevrotain, looking for tips on where to find one. Residents said that while populations had been hit hard by hunting, the animals were still around.

Based on this local ecological knowledge, scientists set up three camera traps in the Vietnamese woods. In just five months, they captured 275 photographs of the little mouse-deer. They then installed 29 additional cameras and snapped 1881 new images in that same length of time.

“For so long this species has seemingly only existed as part of our imagination," Global Wildlife Conservation associate conservation scientist An Nguyen said in a statement. "Discovering that it is, indeed, still out there, is the first step in ensuring we don’t lose it again, and we’re moving quickly now to figure out how best to protect it.”

Now that a silver-backed chevrotain population has been located, researchers plan to conduct the first-ever comprehensive survey of the species. Once the data is collected, it will be used to build a plan for the species' survival.

[h/t The Washington Post]

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