12 Essential Facts About Planet of the Apes

20th Century Fox
20th Century Fox

The late ‘60s were a turning point for sci-fi cinema. Though the occasional triumph like 1956’s Forbidden Planet would slip through the cracks, the genre was mostly a dumping ground for low-budget schlock fests throughout the ‘50s and early ‘60s. That started to change with the release of 1968's Planet of the Apes. The movie, starring Charlton Heston and directed by Franklin J. Schaffner, proved that science fiction was something that could be thought-provoking, transcendent, and (most importantly) massively profitable.

Along with 1968’s 2001: A Space Odyssey, Planet of the Apes changed the perception of what sci-fi was capable of and opened the door for everything from Star Wars (1977) to Blade Runner (1982) in the decades since. As a new segment in the Planet of the Apes saga, Matt Reeves's War for the Planet of the Apes, prepares to hit theaters in July, here are some fascinating facts about the movie that started it all.

1. MOST STUDIOS, AND THE BOOK’S AUTHOR, THOUGHT IT WOULD MAKE A TERRIBLE MOVIE.

Apes, especially talking ones, were the stuff of B-movies back in the 1960s, so nobody took them seriously. That’s exactly the mantra producer Arthur P. Jacobs ran into when he was shopping Planet of the Apes around Hollywood. Jacobs’s pitch was soundly rejected everywhere he went; even Pierre Boulle—author of the source material, La Planète des Singes—agreed. In the documentary Behind the Planet of the Apes, it’s revealed that Boulle considered the book one of his lesser works and never imagined that it would ever make it into theaters.

2. A MAKEUP TEST HELPED CONVINCE 20TH CENTURY FOX TO PRODUCE THE MOVIE.

Jacobs’s Planet of the Apes pitch did manage to catch the attention of one executive: former vice president of 20th Century Fox Richard Zanuck. But Zanuck had one reservation: What if people laughed at the makeup? Up until that point, onscreen apes had either been real monkeys or people in flimsy costumes—and if the makeup didn’t hit the mark, the movie wouldn't work.

To convince Zanuck, Jacobs shot a makeup test, complete with star Charlton Heston as George Taylor and Edward G. Robinson (who later dropped out of the film) as Dr. Zaius in full ape getup. A young James Brolin and Linda Harrison (who would be cast in the full movie as Nova) played the two chimps—Cornelius and Zira. Though it cost a mere $5000 to shoot, the test impressed Zanuck enough to quell fears over the ape makeup, and he agreed to give Jacobs and director Frank Schaffner $5 million to get Planet of the Apes off the ground.

3. THE MAN BEHIND THE APE MAKEUP ALSO HELPED DESIGN SPOCK’S EARS.

The man hired to design the increasingly vital ape makeup for the movie was John Chambers, who had made a name for himself by this time as one of the premier creature effects artists in Hollywood. He had experience working on sci-fi and fantasy shows like The Munsters, The Outer Limits, and Lost in Space. But his biggest contribution to the genre was his makeup design for Spock’s pointy ears on the original Star Trek TV series.

Chambers’s background was unique in Hollywood at the time: In his younger days, he worked at a veterans' hospital after World War II, where he helped design prosthetics and facial restorations for soldiers wounded in combat.

4. ROD SERLING WROTE AN INITIAL DRAFT THAT FEATURED A CONTEMPORARY CITY.

The first writer to take a shot at adapting Planet of the Apes was Rod Serling, the man who brought twists, turns, and terror to TV sets across the country with The Twilight Zone. Serling wrote feverishly, producing upwards of 30 drafts of the script in a year [PDF], but one problem kept his vision from reaching screens: money. Serling’s scripts featured ape society as technologically advanced—with apes driving cars, piloting helicopters, and conducting ape-y business in skyscrapers.

Though this was closer to the society depicted in Boulle’s novel, it didn’t fit in with the studio’s $5 million budget. Subsequent drafts placed the apes in a more primitive society where they rode on horseback and lived in cities that could be constructed as less expensive sets.

5. WRITER MICHAEL WILSON BROUGHT MORE HUMOR AND POLITICAL OVERTONES TO THE SCRIPT.

After much of Serling’s script was deemed unusable, writer Michael Wilson was brought onboard to create a filmable version of the movie. Wilson was a victim of Hollywood’s blacklisting in the ‘50s, being forced to go uncredited on some of his most notable works, including the script to 1958's The Bridge on the River Kwai, which was also adapted from a Boulle novel.

Wilson’s Apes work included punching up the dialogue to be more humorous and introducing the idea of the sham of a trial that Heston’s Taylor has to endure (no doubt a callback to Wilson's own experience on the blacklist). These new drafts overhauled much of the existing script, which led Serling to say [PDF], “[It’s] really Mike Wilson’s screenplay, much more than mine.”

6. THE MAKEUP PROCESS REQUIRED A SMALL ARMY OF ARTISTS.

At its height, the movie’s production required around 100 makeup artists, wardrobe workers, and hairstylists to be on set to get all of the apes in costume and ready for shooting. For some of the larger scenes, there were around 200 actors and actresses to get in full ape garb, all of which required hours of work. The whole makeup process was run like a well-oiled machine by Chambers, who taught each of the artists how to mold and apply all of the ape makeup—sometimes having artists working at all times throughout the day and night to craft the individual ape pieces.

In the Behind the Planet of the Apes documentary, it’s noted that the production’s use of so many makeup personnel actually delayed work on other films throughout Hollywood due to a shortage of artists.

7. THE MAKEUP PROCESS IMPROVED AS PRODUCTION MOVED ALONG.


20th Century Fox

When the production started, it took upwards of six hours to put an actor into full ape makeup including the hair, brows, ears, mouth, and hands. This process eventually became more and more streamlined as the work progressed, with Chambers and his team eventually whittling it down to just a bit over three hours. Chambers himself referred to the whole process as an assembly line.

8. LUNCHTIME LED TO SOME UNINTENDED SEGREGATION.

One of the more peculiar side effects of having a cast of humans in ape garb occurred at lunch time on set. Subconsciously, the cast ate divided down species lines: The human actors, chimpanzees, orangutans, and gorillas all fell in line with a sort of self-segregation and ate with their own kind. This wasn’t some brand of method acting, either, as the actors and producers were just as confused by it as anyone, leading Charlton Heston to simply say, “I have no explanation for it whatsoever.”

In Behind the Planet of the Apes, Kim Hunter, who plays Zira in the movie, recalled how she barely spoke to Maurice Evans (Dr. Zaius) on set. Despite being friendly with Evans from previous work, Hunter referred to him as one of those "others" because he was an orangutan and she was a chimp.

9. A CHIMP HANDED MAKEUP ARTIST JOHN CHAMBERS HIS HONORARY OSCAR.

In 1969, there wasn’t an Oscar category for achievement in makeup, but John Chambers’s work on Planet of the Apes was so far beyond the industry standard that it had to be recognized in some way. The Academy decided on an honorary Oscar for Outstanding Makeup Achievement and presented it during the 41st Academy Awards. Chambers was introduced to the crowd by Walter Matthau, but the real star was the chimpanzee decked out in a tux that handed Chambers his award.

10. A TRIP TO A DELI INSPIRED THE ENDING.

Early on in the process, producer Arthur P. Jacobs and director Blake Edwards—who was originally attached to direct Planet of the Apes—were having trouble cracking the film's ending. In Boulle’s original novel, the action does take place on a completely different planet. For the movie, though, they wanted something less predictable. While eating at a deli near the Warner Bros. lot, Jacobs brought up the idea of having Taylor stranded on Earth the whole time without the characters or the audience knowing it.

The stage was set, but they needed a hook. As the two men left the deli, they looked at a painting of the Statue of Liberty near the cash register. According to Jacobs [PDF], the men had just found their “Rosebud.” A call soon went out to Serling, who integrated their ideas into the script in what the writer calls a “collaboration” with Jacobs [PDF].

11. THE STATUE OF LIBERTY AT THE END WAS A COMBINATION OF A SCALE MODEL AND MATTE PAINTING.

With budget constraints already bearing down on them, there was no logical way to create an entire full-scale model of the destroyed Statue of Liberty for the film’s twist ending. Instead, the production combined a matte painting by Emil Kosa Jr., the man behind the original 20th Century Fox logo, with a practical model for the statue’s reveal.

The model wasn’t created for the whole statue, though. Instead a half-scale recreation of Lady Liberty’s head and torch were constructed to be shot from a scaffold for the statue’s slow reveal.

12. AN EARLIER DRAFT HAD A MUCH MORE OPTIMISTIC ENDING.

Compared to today’s blockbusters, Planet of the Apes ends on a bit of a downer. We learn that humanity is lost as Earth has been destroyed, with only the crumbling image of the Statue of Liberty left to remind us of our once grand civilization. However, writer Michael Wilson’s earlier draft [PDF] would have left the movie with a single sliver of hope about humanity’s future.

In this draft, it’s learned toward the end of the film that Nova is pregnant with Taylor’s child. Though Taylor is struck down by an ape assassin shortly after laying eyes on the crumbling Lady Liberty, Nova escapes into the Forbidden Zone with her unborn child, setting up a potential sequel and showing that perhaps humanity could live on in some way.

Fox executives nixed the idea, fearing that Nova wouldn’t be perceived as purely human by audiences (Wilson referred to her as “humanoid” in an interview with Cinefantastique), leaving an awkward question about whether there was an interspecies romance between her and Taylor.

7 Weird Super Bowl Halftime Acts

Al Bello, Getty Images
Al Bello, Getty Images

Shakira and Jennifer Lopez seem like natural choices to perform the halftime show at this year’s Super Bowl, but the event didn’t always feature musical acts from major pop stars. Michael Jackson kicked off the trend at Super Bowl XXVII in 1993, but prior to that, halftime shows weren’t a platform for the hottest celebrities of the time. They centered around themes instead, and may have featured appearances from Peanuts characters, Jazzercisers, or a magician dressed like Elvis. In honor of Super Bowl LIV on February 2, we’ve rounded up some of the weirdest acts in halftime show history.

1. Return of the Mickey Mouse Club

The era of Super Bowl halftimes before wardrobe malfunctions, illuminati conspiracy theories, and Left Shark was a more innocent time. For 1977’s event, the Walt Disney Company produced a show that doubled as a squeaky-clean promotion of its brand. Themed “Peace, Joy, and Love,” the Super Bowl XI halftime show opened with a 250-piece band rendition of “It’s a Small World (After All).” Disney also used the platform to showcase its recently revamped Mickey Mouse Club.

2. 88 Grand Pianos and 300 Jazzercisers

The theme of the halftime show at Super Bowl XXII in 1988 was “Something Grand.” Naturally, it featured 88 tuxedoed pianists playing 88 grand pianos. Rounding out the program were 400 swing band performers, 300 Jazzercisers, 44 Rockettes, two marching bands, and Chubby Checker telling everyone to “Twist Again."

3. Elvis Impersonator Performs the World’s Largest Card Trick

Many of the music industry's most successful pop stars—like Prince, Madonna, and, uh, Milli Vanilli—were at the height of their fame in 1989, but none of them appeared at Super Bowl XXIII. Instead, the NFL hired an Elvis Presley-impersonating magician to perform. The show, titled “BeBop Bamboozled,” was a tribute to the 1950s, and it featured Elvis Presto performing “the world’s largest card trick.” It also may have included the world's largest eye exam: The show boasted 3D effects, and viewers were urged to pick up special glasses before the game. If the visuals didn't pop like they were supposed to, people were told to see an eye doctor.

4. The Peanuts Salute New Orleans

Super Bowl XXIV featured one of the last halftime acts that was completely devoid of any musical megastars. The biggest celebrity at the 1990 halftime show was Snoopy. Part of the show’s theme was the “40th Anniversary of 'Peanuts,'” and to celebrate the milestone, performers dressed as Peanuts characters and danced on stage. The other half of the theme was “Salute to New Orleans”—not necessarily the first thing that comes to mind when you think of the comic strip.

5. A Tribute to the Winter Olympics

Super Bowl XXVI preceded the 1992 Winter Olympics—a fact that was made very clear by the event’s halftime. The show was titled “Winter Magic” and it paid tribute to the winter games with ice skaters, snowmobiles, and a cameo from the 1980 U.S. hockey team. Other acts, like a group of parachute-pants-wearing children performing the “Frosty the Snowman Rap,” were more generally winter-themed than specific to the Olympics. About 22 million viewers changed the channel during halftime to watch In Living Color’s Super Bowl special, which may have convinced the NFL to hire Michael Jackson the following year.

6. Indiana Jones and the Temple of the Forbidden Eye

“Peace, Joy, and Love” wasn’t the only Disney-helmed Super Bowl halftime. In 1995, Disney produced a halftime show called “Indiana Jones and the Temple of the Forbidden Eye” to tease the new Disneyland ride of the same name. It centered around a skit in which actors playing Indiana Jones and Marion Ravenwood stole the Vince Lombardi Trophy from an exotic temple, and it included choreographed stunts, fiery special effects, and a snake. Patti LaBelle and Tony Bennett were also there.

7. The Blues Brothers, Minus John Belushi

The 1990s marked an odd period for halftime shows as they moved from schlocky themed variety shows to major music events. Super Bowl XXXI in 1997 perfectly encapsulates this transition period. James Brown and ZZ Top performed, but the headliners were the Blues Brothers. John Belushi had been dead for more than a decade by that point, so Jim Belushi took his place beside Dan Aykroyd. John Goodman was also there to promote the upcoming movie Blues Brother 2000. The flashy advertisement didn’t have the impact they had hoped for and the film was a massive flop when it premiered.

15 Fun Facts About Betty White

Frederick M. Brown, Getty Images
Frederick M. Brown, Getty Images

Happy birthday, Betty White! In honor of the ever-sassy star of The Mary Tyler Moore Show and The Golden Girls's 98th birthday, let's celebrate with a collection of fun facts about her life and legacy. 

1. Her name is Betty, not Elizabeth.

On January 17th, 1922, in Oak Park, Illinois, the future television icon was born Betty Marion White, the only child of homemaker Christine Tess (née Cachikis) and lighting company executive Horace Logan White. In her autobiography If You Ask Me (And of Course You Won't), White explained her parents named her "Betty" specifically because they didn't like many of the nicknames derived from "Elizabeth." Forget your Beths, your Lizas, your Ellies. She's Betty.

2. She's a Guinness World Record holder.

In the 2014 edition of the record-keeping tome, White was awarded the title of Longest TV Career for an Entertainer (Female) for her more than 70 years (and counting) in show business. The year before, Guinness gave out Longest TV Career for an Entertainer (Male) to long-time British TV host Bruce Forsyth. As both began their careers in 1939, they'd be neck-and-neck for the title, were they not separated by gender.

3. Her first television appearance is lost to history.

A photo of Betty White
Getty Images

Even White can't remember the name of the show she made her screen debut on in 1939. But in an interview with Guinness Book of World Records, she recounted the life-changing event, saying, "I danced on an experimental TV show, the first on the west coast, in downtown Los Angeles. I wore my high school graduation dress and our Beverly Hills High student body president, Harry Bennett, and I danced the 'Merry Widow Waltz.'" 

4. White's initial rise to stardom was derailed by World War II.

Before she took off on television, White was working in theater, on radio, and as a model. But with WWII, she shelved her ambitions and joined the American Women's Voluntary Services. Her days were devoted to delivering supplies via PX truck throughout the Hollywood Hills, but her nights were spent at rousing dances thrown to give grand send-offs to soldiers set to ship out. Of that era, she told Cleveland Magazine, "It was a strange time and out of balance with everything." 

5. Her first sitcom hit was in the early 1950s.

A photo of actress Betty White
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Co-hosting the Al Jarvis show Hollywood on Television led to White producing her own vehicle, Life With Elizabeth. As a rare female producer, she developed the show alongside emerging writer-producer George Tibbles, who'd go on to work on such beloved shows as Dennis The Menace, Leave It To Beaver, and The Munsters. Though the show is not remembered much today, in 1951 it did earn White her first Emmy nomination of 21 (so far). Of these, she has won five times.

6. White loves a parade.

From 1962 to 1971, White hosted NBC's Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade alongside Bonanza's Lorne Greene. But that's not all. For 20 years (1956-1976), she was also a color commentator for NBC’s annual Tournament of Roses Parade. However, as her fame grew on CBS's The Mary Tyler Moore Show, NBC decided they should pull White (and all the rival promotion that came with her) from their parade. It was a decision that was heartbreaking for White, who told People, "On New Year's Day I just sat home feeling wretched, watching someone else do my parade."

7. She has been married three times.


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White and her first husband, Dick Barker, were married and divorced in the same year, 1945. After four months on Barker's rural Ohio chicken farm, White fled back to Los Angeles and her career as an entertainer. Soon after, she met agent Lane Allen, who became her husband in 1947, and her ex-husband in 1949 after he pushed her to quit show biz. She wouldn’t marry again until 1963, after she fell for widower/father of three/game show host Allen Ludden.

8. Her meet-cute with husband number three happened on Password.

Bubbly Betty was a regular on the game show circuit, but she met her match in 1961 when she was a celebrity guest on Password, hosted by Allen Ludden. Though White initially rebuffed Ludden's engagement ring (he wore it around his neck until she changed her mind), the pair stayed together until his death in 1981. Today, their stars on the Hollywood Walk Of Fame sit side-by-side.

9. White originally auditioned for the role of Blanche on The Golden Girls.

A photo of actress Betty White
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Producers of the series thought of White for the role of the ensemble's promiscuous party girl because she'd long played the lusty Sue Ann Nivens on The Mary Tyler Moore Show. Meanwhile, they eyed Rue McClanahan for the part of naive country bumpkin Rose Nylund because of her work as the sweet but dopey Vivian Harmon on Maude. Director Jay Sandrich was worried about typecasting, so he asked the two to switch roles in the audition. And just like that, The Golden Girls history was made.

10. If she hadn't been an actor, she'd have been a zookeeper.

"Hands down," she confessed in a 2014 interview. This should come as little surprise to those aware of White's reputation as an avid animal lover and activist. Not only does she try to visit the local zoo of wherever she may travel, but also she's a supporter of the Farm Animal Reform Movement and Friends of Animals group, as well as a Los Angeles Zoo board member, who has donated "tens of thousands of dollars" over the past 40 years. In 2010, White founded a T-shirt line whose profits go to the Morris Animal Foundation.

11. She passed on a role in As Good as It Gets because of an animal cruelty scene.

A photo of actress Betty White
Getty Images

White was offered the part of Beverly Connelly, onscreen mother to Helen Hunt, in the Oscar-winning movie As Good as It Gets. But the devoted animal lover was horrified by the scene where Jack Nicholson's curmudgeonly anti-hero pitches a small dog down the trash chute of his apartment building. On The Joy Behar Show White explained, "All I could think of was all the people out there watching that movie … and if there's a dog in the building that's barking or they don't like—boom! They do it." She complained to director James L. Brooks in hopes of having the scene cut. Instead, he kept it and cast Shirley Knight in the role.

12. A Facebook campaign made White the oldest person to ever host Saturday Night Live.

In 2010, a Facebook group called Betty White To Host SNL … Please? gathered so many fans (nearly a million) and so much media attention that SNL executive producer Lorne Michaels was happy to make it happen. At 88 years old, White set a new record. Her episode, for which many of the show's female alums returned, also won rave reviews, and gave the show's highest ratings in 18 months. White won her fifth Emmy for this performance.

13. She is the oldest person to earn an Emmy nomination.


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In 2014, White earned an Emmy nod for Outstanding Host for a Reality or Reality-Competition Program for the senior citizen-centric prank show Betty White's Off Their Rockers. She was 92. She also holds the record for the longest span between Emmy nominations, between her first (1951) and last (so far).  

14. She loves junk food.

The key to aging gracefully has nothing to do with health food as far as White is concerned. In 2011, her Hot in Cleveland co-star Jane Leeves dished on White's snacking habits, "She eats Red Vines, hot dogs, French fries, and Diet Coke. If that's key, maybe she's preserved because of all the preservatives." Fellow co-star Wendie Malick concurred, "She eats red licorice, like, ridiculously a lot. She seems to exist on hot dogs and French fries." 

15. She wants Robert Redford.

A photo of actor Robert Redford
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White once gave this cheeky confession: “My answer to anything under the sun, like ‘What have you not done in the business that you’ve always wanted to do?’ is ‘Robert Redford.'” Though she has more than 110 film and television credits on her filmography, White has never worked with the Out of Africa star, who is 14 years her junior.

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