8 Facts You Might Not Know About the Donner Party

A Donner Party memorial in California.
A Donner Party memorial in California.

In April 1846, a group of pioneers who came to be known as the Donner-Reed Party departed Springfield, Illinois, headed for the Mexican province of Alta California. Mindful of the severe cholera epidemics across the nation and the lingering consequences of the financial panic of 1837, they were also inspired to head west by America’s grand expansionist movement, Manifest Destiny.

The Donner Party’s collective dream, however, became a collective nightmare thanks to poor timing, terrible advice, and even worse weather. After becoming snowbound in the Sierra Nevada Mountains on the border between Nevada and California, the party soon ran out of food and ultimately resorted to feeding off the flesh of their dead companions and family members in order to survive. It's this aspect of the Donner Party story that makes it so grotesquely fascinating, and one of the most haunting to come out of the settlement of the American West.


The dramatic backdrop to the Donners' storied trek is the expansionist movement dubbed Manifest Destiny—the widely held belief that Anglo-Saxon citizens of the United States had been mandated by God Almighty to embark on a mission to spread its form of government and way of life across the entire continent, from sea to shining sea. As some of the first foot soldiers of the movement, the Donner Party revealed the foibles and follies of Manifest Destiny—the rather arrogant belief that the continent was meant for Anglo-Americans to possess since no other humans lived there. In truth, much of the land belonged to Mexico and all of it was populated by scores of Indian tribes.


Abraham Lincoln around 1846.Wikimedia // Public Domain

While working as a lawyer in Springfield, Illinois, Abraham Lincoln continued his friendship with James Reed, one of the principal members of the Donner-Reed Party. They had first met many years before, when they were messmates in the Blackhawk War. When Reed’s businesses began to fail due to a national economic downturn, Lincoln counseled his friend, and just before the wagon caravan departed for the far West, Lincoln helped Reed through bankruptcy proceedings. Reed was able to stash away a considerable amount of cash that he later used to purchase land in California.

Many years after the Donner Party tragedy, one of Reed’s daughters revealed that Lincoln seriously considered joining the caravan but ultimately didn't go due to opposition from his wife. Instead, Lincoln entered the political arena.


If not for some wrong turns, internal strife, and a series of winter storms the likes of which had never been seen before, the Donner Party would have been an unremarkably successful wagon train. That, of course, was not the case.

One of the chief culprits was Lansford Hastings, an early California land promoter who wrote a then-popular book entitled The Emigrant’s Guide to Oregon and California. Besides containing many inaccuracies, Hastings’s guide extolled the virtues of a shortcut, the Hastings Cutoff, that he claimed would save much time. Little did the emigrants know that Hastings had never taken the shortcut himself. They decided to take his advice only to find the route he suggested actually added more precious time to their journey, contributing to their inability to cross the Sierras before the heavy winter snows.


In mid-December, a small group set out from the snow-bound camps on crude snowshoes in hopes of making it over the pass to summon help. They later came to be known as the Forlorn Hope. Included in the group were two Miwok Indians, Luis and Salvador, who had been sent by early California pioneer John Sutter to help the trapped emigrants. The Miwoks brought badly needed supplies and helped provide important winter survival advice.

This party was the first forced to resort to cannibalism of the dead when all their supplies were gone. Eventually, when even the (dead) human sources of food dwindled, it was decided to kill the Miwoks. Both men were shot and their flesh consumed. The rest of the party rationalized that as Indians, the pair were not really humans.


Stumps of trees cut by the Donner Party in Summit Valley, CaliforniaWikimedia // Public Domain

Once the party was trapped on the east side of the High Sierras, they killed and ate all the horses and oxen. They boiled the hides to make a gelatinous concoction and picked all the marrow from the animal bones. They gobbled up any mice they could catch in their makeshift cabins. Then, one by one, they killed all their pet dogs and ate them. Finally, desperate and delirious, they chewed on pine bark and pine cones. As a last resort, while watching their children and others die, they turned to the dead bodies buried in the snowdrifts.


It took the four relief parties more than two months to rescue the survivors. When members of the First Relief reached the camps it was said they saw no signs of human activity until a lone woman, gaunt from starvation, emerged from a hole in the snow. When they approached her, the woman asked, “Are you men from California or do you come from heaven?”

In the end, 41 people died and 46 survived. Five perished before reaching the Sierras, 35 died at the camps or attempting to cross the mountains, and one died just after reaching the valley at the foot of the western slope. Many of the survivors lost toes to frostbite and suffered chronic physical and psychological disorders.


James and Margaret Reed. Wikimedia // Public Domain

Males succumbed at a higher rate than females and also died sooner. The principal reason was that the mothers in the caravan made every effort to keep their families alive, while the younger single men who exerted more energy had no family unit and died early on. Overall, the death toll was highest among the very young and the elderly. Older children and teens fared better than adults. All the Donner adults—brothers George and Jacob and their wives—perished, but several of their offspring survived. Two entire families—the Reeds and the Breens—also survived, and the Reeds were the only ones in the entire party who never ate human flesh.


Even before the last survivor was rescued from the snowy Sierras, myths about the Donner ordeal were created, and exaggerated newspaper accounts distorted the truth. These scurrilous stories went unchecked and unchallenged for many years. Wild tales abounded that told of emigrants feasting on human flesh out of pleasure instead of survival. In fact, the party’s acts of survival cannibalism helped convince much of the public that the so-called "civilizers" themselves became savages.

Michael Wallis is the author of The Best Land Under Heaven: The Donner Party in the Age of Manifest Destiny. He is also the best-selling author of Route 66 and Billy the Kid, and has won numerous honors and awards. He is a popular public speaker and a highly acclaimed voice actor. He lives in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Looking to Downsize? You Can Buy a 5-Room DIY Cabin on Amazon for Less Than $33,000

Five rooms of one's own.
Five rooms of one's own.

If you’ve already mastered DIY houses for birds and dogs, maybe it’s time you built one for yourself.

As Simplemost reports, there are a number of house kits that you can order on Amazon, and the Allwood Avalon Cabin Kit is one of the quaintest—and, at $32,990, most affordable—options. The 540-square-foot structure has enough space for a kitchen, a bathroom, a bedroom, and a sitting room—and there’s an additional 218-square-foot loft with the potential to be the coziest reading nook of all time.

You can opt for three larger rooms if you're willing to skip the kitchen and bathroom.Allwood/Amazon

The construction process might not be a great idea for someone who’s never picked up a hammer, but you don’t need an architectural degree to tackle it. Step-by-step instructions and all materials are included, so it’s a little like a high-level IKEA project. According to the Amazon listing, it takes two adults about a week to complete. Since the Nordic wood walls are reinforced with steel rods, the house can withstand winds up to 120 mph, and you can pay an extra $1000 to upgrade from double-glass windows and doors to triple-glass for added fortification.

Sadly, the cool ceiling lamp is not included.Allwood/Amazon

Though everything you need for the shell of the house comes in the kit, you will need to purchase whatever goes inside it: toilet, shower, sink, stove, insulation, and all other furnishings. You can also customize the blueprint to fit your own plans for the space; maybe, for example, you’re going to use the house as a small event venue, and you’d rather have two or three large, airy rooms and no kitchen or bedroom.

Intrigued? Find out more here.

[h/t Simplemost]

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How 'Rumor Clinics' Fought Fake News 80 Years Ago

Fake news spread fast in 1940s America.
Fake news spread fast in 1940s America.
GraphicaArtis/Getty Images

Strange tales circulated around 1940s America. There was one about a lady whose head exploded at a beauty salon after her perm ignited residue from her job at the munitions factory. Others claimed Japan was planning to spike America's water supply with arsenic, and that a Massachusetts couple reported picking up a hitchhiker who claimed Hitler was on the verge defeat, before vanishing like a ghost from the back of their car.

All of those stories were lies—but that didn't stop people from spreading the rumors. As the United States plunged into the Second World War, newspapers fought fake news amid fears of Nazi propaganda efforts.

The Rumor Clinics

About three months after Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, the first rumor clinic was created in Boston on March 1, 1942, under the leadership of Harvard Professors Gordon Allport and Robert Knapp and the Eastern Psychological Association. The Boston Herald worked with the Massachusetts Committee on Public Safety's Division of Propaganda Research and a network of volunteers who hunted down rumors and their origins to dispel misinformation the publishers believed could harm the war effort, civilian defense, or the general morale of the country. A council that included the Boston police commissioner, the state’s attorney general, representatives of local unions, and the chamber of commerce vetted each edition of the column.

The Boston Herald’s weekly rumor clinic column was duplicated across the country, with as many as 40 different newspapers running their own versions, according to a January 24, 1943 New York Times feature. At the time, there was fear that Germany’s propaganda prowess would sow dissent among the U.S. population. “The United States was convinced that the moment war broke out they would be completely bombarded by rumors planted by the Germans. In order to head off these rumors, people who wanted to defend the United States decided to track these down,” Nick Cull, a University of Southern California professor and expert in war time propaganda, tells Mental Floss.

Rumors undercut rationing and industrial war efforts, such as the rumor about a woman whose head exploded at the hair salon. Other tales re-enforced racism and other prejudices already present in the country. Some of those rumors included that Jewish people were not required to serve in the military, or that white soldiers were having Black children after receiving Red Cross blood donations from Black civilians.

“It was stories that Americans told each other,” Cull says. “The rumors were so colorful that you could never forget them once you heard them.”

Nailing a Local Lie

About three months after the first column ran, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt created the Office of War Information through executive order on June 13, 1942. As Sidney Shalett wrote in The New York Times, the OWI looked to local communities as “the best place to nail a local lie.” The OWI began working with the rumor clinics and soon found that despite the assumptions German saboteurs were wreaking havoc on America’s psyche, most of the rumors were race-based lies spread by other Americans, according to Cull.

By the end of the war, the rumor clinics started disbanding, as the OWI adopted a new strategy of spreading facts without repeating rumors. Instead of directly challenging racist rumor mongering, the OWI released materials and information promoting the idea that all Americans were in the fight together against the Axis.

According to Julie Smith, a Webster University instructor and media literacy expert, while debunking rumors can be effective, the repetition of the debunked rumors can also re-enforce them. This became a concern for the OWI, leading it to grow wary of printing rumors just for the sake of denying them. “Misinformation has been around forever," Smith says, "and we have not gotten any smarter."