15 Things You Might Not Know About Rhinos

iStock.com/johan63
iStock.com/johan63

The rhinoceros is the second largest land mammal on Earth, next to the elephant. It's also one of the most aggressive. But despite its reputation as the bully on the playground, rhinos are vulnerable when it comes to one great danger: humans. Their ranks have drastically dwindled over the past century due to poaching and habitat loss, and conservationists are now trying to save them from extinction. In recognition of Save the Rhinos Day on May 1, here are 15 important facts about nature's knight in armor.

1. They're Greek—at least in name.

Rhinoceros in a field with a pond
iStock.com/davidevison

The word rhinoceros stems from the Greek words rhino (nose) and keras (horn). So when you shorten the word to "rhino," you're really just saying "nose."

2. A group of rhinos is called a "crash."

Three rhinos drinking water
iStock.com/Theo_Theron

Crash of Rhinos also happens to be an emo band from Derby, England.

3. They used to be 16 feet tall.

older rhino walking with two younger rhinos
iStock.com/CoreyFord

The paraceratherium, a hornless species of ancient rhinoceros that roamed the Earth 30 million years ago, stood over 16 feet tall. Modern rhinos are significantly smaller, of course, but scientists don't really know how they evolved. The white rhino, which grows up to 6 feet tall, is the largest of the five species that exist today. Measuring under 5 feet in height, the smallest is the Sumatran rhino, which is the only hairy species as well as the closest living relative of the extinct woolly rhinoceros.

4. White rhinos and black rhinos are actually the same color.

two rhinos standing in grass
iStock.com/fishcat007

They're both essentially grayish-brown. One widely spread rumor suggests that white rhinos were originally called wijd (wide) by Dutch settlers in Africa, referring to the animal's wide mouth, which was then mistranslated into English as "white." However, rhino expert Kees Rookmaaker has stated that there is no linguistic evidence to support that tale. It remains a mystery how the white rhino got its name.

5. Rhinos say mmwonk when they're happy.

Indian rhinos are known to make at least 10 distinct sounds, including honks (used during head-to-head fights), bleats (signaling submission), and moo-grunts (used between mothers and calves). Black rhinos use grunts as a greeting and make a mmwonk sound when they're content.

6. They have a complicated relationship with the oxpecker bird.

Oxpecker bird sits on the head of a rhino
iStock.com/Wolfgang_Steiner

Rhinos are often seen with oxpeckers hitching a ride on their backs, but the benefit of these birds is currently debated. The traditional argument is that they snack on bugs and ticks that crawl on the rhino's skin, but in 2000, research on cattle failed to find a consistent benefit to having oxpeckers, while a 2004 study on captive (and tick-free) rhinos found that rather than being helpful, oxpeckers spent much of their time picking at wounds and feasting on the rhino’s blood [PDF]. Meanwhile, other researchers argue that the birds actually do eat ticks and the like. The birds may give the rhinos one additional benefit though: A 2010 experiment found that without oxpeckers, black rhinos were able to detect a person walking up to a rhino 23 percent of the time. With the oxpeckers present that shot up to 97 percent, perhaps explaining why in Swahili, the oxpecker is referred to as the "rhino's guard."

7. They're long-distance sprayers.

rhino spray urinating
iStock.com/Marti Malet

In a show of dominance, alpha male Indian rhinos can spray urine a distance of over 16 feet. This is typically done in the presence of other males or breeding-age females. Other rhinos also spray urine: For males this is typically for marking territory, while female Sumatran rhinos [PDF] have been observed spray urinating 69 times in a 12 hour period before giving birth, and continued this behavior even after the calf was weaned, likely to mask the scent of the calf.

8. They communicate through poop.

rhino sniffing poop
iStock.com/krichie

White rhino droppings are unique identifiers, meaning that a rhino can take one whiff of a dung heap and instantly know the animal's age, sex, and reproductive status, according to one study. All white rhinos in a particular area head to the same spot to defecate, called a midden, which is essentially a communal dumping ground.

"We think of dung as just a waste product, but it's really a good way for animals to communicate," Courtney Marneweck, the head of the study, told National Geographic. "There's a lot of information there that we haven't taken advantage of."

9. Their farts smell like sulfur.

rhino sniffing another rhino's butt
iStock.com/1Photodiva

Rhinos are notorious for passing particularly noxious gas, according to the book Does It Fart? The Definitive Field Guide to Animal Flatulence:

"Rhino farts also smell really bad, so much so that they have even given rise to a piece of brewing terminology; when the yeast used to make alcohol through fermentation produces hydrogen sulfide it gives off a horrible sulfur smell, known as a rhino fart."

10. The males can get aggressive.

two male rhinos fighting with their horns
iStock.com/TonyBaggett

Rhinos aren't afraid to use their horns when it comes to matters of the heart. Male black rhinos are particularly aggressive in their pursuit of a mate, and the rate of "mortal combat" among these horned lovers is higher than any other mammal on the planet. About half of males and 30 percent of females die from injuries sustained while fighting.

11. They're related to zebras.

rhinos gathering with zebras
iStock.com/1001slide

The closest living relatives to rhinos are not elephants or hippos, but rather horses, tapirs, and zebras, all of which are classified as odd-toed ungulates. Rhinos and tapirs walk on three toes, while horses walk on one (which we know as a hoof).

12. They have sensitive feet.

rhino's feet
iStock.com/Kantapatp

Speaking of toes, rhinos do have one weak spot. Rhinos typically put most of their weight on their toenails when they walk to avoid wearing out their sensitive feet. This is easy to do in the wild, where marshes and mushy wetlands abound, but when they're brought to zoos, their toenails tend to wear down on hard surfaces like concrete and asphalt. This can lead to swollen, sore, and cracked feet, making them more susceptible to infection. To tackle this issue, one zoo glued modified horseshoes onto a rhino's toes, which you can read about in the book The Rhino With Glue-On Shoes.

13. They're wallowers.

But not because they're depressed. For a rhino, a nice mud bath is like a day at the spa. It not only helps the animals cool down in hot weather, but it's also great for their skin, helping to ward off pesky insects. Although the animals have a pretty thick dermis, they're surprisingly vulnerable when it comes to bug bites and sunburn.

14. Their horns are made of the same protein found in human fingernails.

close-up on a rhino's horns
iStock.com/alaincouillaud

Rhino horns are made up of nothing but keratin, but that doesn't stop poachers from killing thousands of the animals each year and selling their horns on the black market. The horns are fashioned into jewelry and figurines, and in some parts of Asia they're believed to hold healing properties (they don't).

15. They risk extinction.

man with binoculars in the wild
iStock.com/Peopleimages

Just a century ago, there were more than half a million rhinos around the world. Now, around 30,000 survive in the wild, largely due to poaching. All five species of rhino are in danger, but three are considered critically endangered: Sumatran, Javan, and black rhinos. Today, there are about 60 remaining Javan rhinos, fewer than 100 Sumatran rhinos, and about 5500 black rhinos.

There is some good news, though. Thanks to conservation efforts, black and white rhino numbers have increased in recent years, with the white rhino having been "brought back from the brink of extinction," according to the World Wildlife Fund. The organization Save the Rhinos is taking a multi-pronged approach to the issue, working to deploy more field rangers to protect the animals, reduce demand in Asia, and breed rhinos that are currently in captivity.

This story was republished in 2019.

Looking to Downsize? You Can Buy a 5-Room DIY Cabin on Amazon for Less Than $33,000

Five rooms of one's own.
Five rooms of one's own.
Allwood/Amazon

If you’ve already mastered DIY houses for birds and dogs, maybe it’s time you built one for yourself.

As Simplemost reports, there are a number of house kits that you can order on Amazon, and the Allwood Avalon Cabin Kit is one of the quaintest—and, at $32,990, most affordable—options. The 540-square-foot structure has enough space for a kitchen, a bathroom, a bedroom, and a sitting room—and there’s an additional 218-square-foot loft with the potential to be the coziest reading nook of all time.

You can opt for three larger rooms if you're willing to skip the kitchen and bathroom.Allwood/Amazon

The construction process might not be a great idea for someone who’s never picked up a hammer, but you don’t need an architectural degree to tackle it. Step-by-step instructions and all materials are included, so it’s a little like a high-level IKEA project. According to the Amazon listing, it takes two adults about a week to complete. Since the Nordic wood walls are reinforced with steel rods, the house can withstand winds up to 120 mph, and you can pay an extra $1000 to upgrade from double-glass windows and doors to triple-glass for added fortification.

Sadly, the cool ceiling lamp is not included.Allwood/Amazon

Though everything you need for the shell of the house comes in the kit, you will need to purchase whatever goes inside it: toilet, shower, sink, stove, insulation, and all other furnishings. You can also customize the blueprint to fit your own plans for the space; maybe, for example, you’re going to use the house as a small event venue, and you’d rather have two or three large, airy rooms and no kitchen or bedroom.

Intrigued? Find out more here.

[h/t Simplemost]

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A Wily Fox With a Passion for Fashion Stole More Than 100 Shoes From a Berlin Neighborhood

The smirk.
The smirk.
Brett Jordan, Unsplash

In Berlin, Germany, a fox has embarked on a crime spree that puts Dora the Explorer’s Swiper completely to shame.

CNN-News18 reports that residents of Zehlendorf, a locality in southeastern Berlin, spent weeks scratching their heads as shoes continued to disappear from their stoops and patios overnight. After posting about the mystery on a neighborhood watch site and reading accounts from various bewildered barefooters, a local named Christian Meyer began to think the thief might be a fox.

He was right. Meyer caught sight of the roguish robber with a mouthful of flip-flop and followed him to a field, where he found more than 100 stolen shoes. The fox appears to have an affinity for Crocs, but the cache also contained sandals, sneakers, a pair of rubber boots, and one black ballet flat, among other footwear. Unfortunately, according to BBC News, Meyer’s own vanished running shoe was nowhere to be seen.

Foxes are known for their playfulness, and it’s not uncommon for one to trot off with an item left unattended in a yard. Birmingham & Black Country Wildlife explains that foxes are drawn to “things that smell good,” which, to a fox, includes dog toys, balls, gardening gloves, and worn shoes. And if your former cat’s backyard gravesite is suddenly empty one day, you can probably blame a fox for that, too; they bury their own food to eat later, so a deceased pet is basically a free meal.

The fate of Zehlendorf’s furriest burglar remains unclear, but The Cut’s Amanda Arnold has a radical idea: that the residents simply let the fox keep what is obviously a well-curated collection.

[h/t CNN-News18]