Mental Floss

‘Tis and 10 Other Fun Proclitic Words

Arika Okrent /

English likes to stick contractions on the end of words. “They have” becomes “they’ve,” “I will” becomes “I’ll,” and “do not” becomes “don’t.” The shortened parts of these words are called enclitics—they are a bit more independent than suffixes, but like suffixes, they attach to the ends of words. English also used to have a number of proclitics—shortened words that attach to the beginning of other words. Most proclitic words are now archaic or obsolete, but every December the neglected proclitics get their revenge, as a holiday avalanche of “‘tis” rolls through town.

'Tis, a shortening of “it is,” has a Dickensian, Christmasy ring to it. For a time, it was far more common in writing than its counterpart “it’s.” The final shift from “'tis” to “it’s” took place in the middle of the 19th century, when Dickens was writing his novels. That was also when the lyrics to “Deck the Halls” were first published. “'Tis the season” is now so deeply embedded in our linguistic consciousness that the perfectly normal phrase “it’s the season” just sounds weird, like Mick Jagger singing “I can’t get any satisfaction.”

Why let 'tis have all the fun? This season, get in the proclitic spirit with these 10 other charming word-beginning contractions.

1.  'twas

This is another one that contributes to the Christmasy overtones of these words, due to its association with “'Twas the Night Before Christmas.”

2. 'twere

This poor guy is doubly archaic. Not only does it contain the contracted “it,” but also the subjunctive “were.” If the subjunctive was still commonly used—I mean, if 'twere commonly used—we might hope for a 'twere revival. But probably not.

3. 'twould

The t sound doesn’t attach so well to the beginning of could or should, but it has no problem forming a cluster with the w of would.

4. 'twill

'Tis, 'twas, and ever 'twill be.

5. 'twon’t

Nothing stopping a word from contracting on both ends. 'Twon’t gets “it will not” into one syllable.

6. 'tain’t

Some prefer 'tisn’t, but if you prefer 'tain’t, 'tain’t nobody’s business if you do.

7. th'art

“It” isn’t the only word that can turn proclitic. “Thou” can also reduce and join to its verb. Shakespeare did it. Th'art impressed, I bet.

8. n'art

Chaucer did it with the negation particle “ne.” If thou n'art impressed now, I don’t know what to tell you.

9. 'swonderful

You can even take an enclitic, the s of “it’s,” and turn it into a proclitic, Gershwin style: 'swonderful, 'smarvelous, 'sawful nice, 'sparadise, and so on until 'sdone.

10. y'all

This one may not call to mind Dickens, Shakespeare, Chaucer, or even Gershwin, but it can still help you get in a holiday mood. 'Tis the season, y'all.