Where Does All the Human Poop in Antarctica End Up?

Eli Duke, Flickr // CC BY-SA 2.0
Eli Duke, Flickr // CC BY-SA 2.0

Antarctica is perhaps the most pristine place on Earth, but it takes a great deal of effort to keep it that way. The population of Antarctica—mainly researchers and support staff—swells to about 5000 in the summer months, and the number of tourists that visit during this peak travel season sometimes exceeds 40,000.

The problem? Where there are humans, there is human waste—and loads of it. Waste removal is a problem affecting other hard-to-reach places, like Mt. Everest in Nepal and China, and Denali in Alaska. China recently announced that climbers on the Tibet side of the world's highest peak would have to start carrying away their own poop, while scientists in Alaska warned that global warming could cause an estimated 66 tons of frozen feces on the mountainside to melt.

There are international rules in place to make sure Antarctica doesn't acquire a similar problem. The continent is protected under the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty from 1998, which stipulates that "the amount of waste produced or disposed of in Antarctica should be minimized to protect the environment and other Antarctic values" [PDF].

However, much of the law is left up to interpretation, with waste treatment procedures varying from one research station to the next. Some of the waste gets treated, then shipped back to various countries, including the United States, Australia, and New Zealand. In other cases, waste is treated and dumped into the ocean.

The day-to-day logistics of doing your business depend on the location, too. Many of the larger research centers have flush toilets, including the American-run McMurdo and Amundsen-Scott South Pole stations, but these modern comforts are harder to come by away from base.

In lieu of flushable loos, some stations require the two kinds of waste (solids and liquids) to be processed individually. This can mean separate toilets for separate bodily functions. Out in the field, researchers may need to use poo buckets and pee bottles (women included). And in certain locations, both China and the U.S. use "rocket toilets" (officially known as incinolets) that burn the waste, reducing it to ash.

Indeed, while everybody poops, not all of it gets treated in the same way. Here's how two different research stations in Antarctica are handling their waste.

The United States’s McMurdo station

Eli Duke, Flickr // CC BY-SA 2.0

McMurdo Station, the largest research station on the continent, is situated south of New Zealand on Antarctica’s Ross Island. It accommodates an average of 850 visitors during the busy summer season, which translates to a whole lot of human waste.

For decades, the station macerated its poop (reduced it to smaller particles) and then released the byproduct directly into the ocean. In 1989, a U.S. official told The New York Times, "Waste disposal in Antarctica used to be a disgrace. But during the past half-dozen years we've been correcting the sins of earlier generations."

It wasn’t until 2003, though, that McMurdo Station got its very own waste treatment plant connected to its network of flush toilets. The waste gets mashed up by two JWC Environmental Muffin Monster grinders, and those particles then undergo a UV disinfection process. The liquid end-product gets pumped into the ocean.

Any solid waste that’s leftover from the treatment process gets packed up and shipped back to America on cargo ships that bring supplies to McMurdo Station on an annual basis. The ships also transport recyclables, food waste, and scientific samples back to the U.S.

“The U.S. takes its commitment to the environment seriously, and outside of gray/black wastewater [what flows into the wastewater treatment plant for processing], everything is removed from the continent and taken to the U.S. for final disposal,” Peter West, polar outreach program manager of the National Science Foundation, which runs McMurdo Station, tells Mental Floss. “Even some of the gray/black wastewater from field camps is taken to the U.S. for disposal.”

Australia’s Davis station

Torsten Blackwood-Pool, Getty Images

Australia’s researchers used to have a pretty big poo problem. After a waste processing plant at the country’s Davis research station broke down in 2005, they had to resort to other means of eliminating the waste left behind by the 120-some scientists and staff who stay there each summer. Instead of the waste being treated, “sewage was burned or else discharged with little or no treatment straight into the sea,” the Australian Antarctic Division (AAD) writes on its website.

That disposal method had an unfortunate effect. A 2010 study revealed that the fecal matter wasn’t dispersing well once it was piped into the sea. Instead, it was clumping up in certain areas, exposing nearby seal and penguin populations to high levels of bacteria. These contaminants ultimately wound up in the marine food chain, with “sewage markers"—certain stable isotopes linked to sewage intake—being discovered in a snail and a fish.

To address this problem, a new wastewater treatment plant was constructed at Davis station, which is located along the Ingrid Christensen Coast on Princess Elizabeth Land. But before they could start using it, they had to wait for the microbial green light, so to speak. “Wastewater treatment plants rely on microbes to eat much of the waste in the wastewater, and it takes a while for these to multiply sufficiently to do this job when starting a new plant,” Michael Packer, Australian Antarctic Division engineer, tells Mental Floss. “Anywhere else in the world, this process can be kickstarted by introducing doses of these microbes. In Antarctica it is a bit more tricky as we don’t want to introduce foreign species to the environment down there.”

Once the naturally occurring microbes started reporting for duty, the plant became operational in 2016. It soon began transforming waste “into some of the cleanest water in the world,” according to the AAD. When a more advanced stage of treatment goes into effect later this year, the quality of the treated wastewater will improve once again. “It will be even cleaner than the water that comes out of the tap in the average Australian house,” Packer says.

From there, the water is discharged into the ocean. Any leftover solid waste is then concentrated in a decanter and shipped back to Australia.

And yes, in case you were wondering, all three of Australia’s research stations have flush toilets. Any researcher who has to answer the call of nature while away from Davis station must carry their waste with them so that it can be treated back at base.

Suffice it to say, if you're planning to visit one of the most remote regions of the world, don't forget your bottle.

14 Retro Gifts for Millennials

Ravi Palwe, Unsplash
Ravi Palwe, Unsplash

Millennials were born between 1981 and 1996, which means the pop culture they grew up with is officially retro. No matter what generation you belong to, consider these gifts when shopping for the Millennials in your life this holiday season.

1. Reptar Funko Pop!; $29

Amazon

This vinyl Reptar figurine from Funko is as cool as anything you’d find in the rugrats’ toy box. The monster dinosaur has been redesigned in classic Pop! style, making it a perfect desk or shelf accessory for the grown-up Nickelodeon fan. It also glows in the dark, which should appeal to anyone’s inner child.

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2. Dragon Ball Z Slippers; $20

Hot Topic

You don’t need to change out of your pajamas to feel like a Super Saiyan. These slippers are emblazoned with the same kanji Goku wears on his gi in Dragon Ball Z: one for training under King Kai and one for training with Master Roshi. And with a soft sherpa lining, the footwear feels as good as it looks.

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3. The Pokémon Cookbook; $15

Hop Topic

What do you eat after a long day of training and catching Pokémon? Any dish in The Pokémon Cookbook is a great option. This book features more than 35 recipes inspired by creatures from the Pokémon franchise, including Poké Ball sushi rolls and mashed Meowth potatoes.

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4. Lisa Frank Activity Book; $5

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Millennials will never be too old for Lisa Frank, especially when the artist’s playful designs come in a relaxing activity book. Watercolor brings the rainbow characters in this collection to life. Just gather some painting supplies and put on a podcast for a relaxing, nostalgia-fueled afternoon.

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5. Shoebox Tape Recorder with USB; $28

Amazon

The days of recording mix tapes don’t have to be over. This device looks and functions just like tape recorders from the pre-smartphone era. And with a USB port as well as a line-in jack and built-in mic, users can easily import their digital music collection onto retro cassette tapes.

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6. Days of the Week Scrunchie Set; $12

Urban Outfitters

Millennials can be upset that a trend from their youth is old enough to be cool again, or they can embrace it. This scrunchie set is for anyone happy to see the return of the hair accessory. The soft knit ponytail holders come in a set of five—one for each day of the school (or work) week.

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7. D&D Graphic T-shirt; $38-$48

80s Tees

The perfect gift for the Dungeon Master in your life, this graphic tee is modeled after the cover of the classic Dungeons & Dragons rule book. It’s available in sizes small through 3XL.

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8. Chuck E. Cheese T-shirt; $36-$58

80s Tees

Few Millennials survived childhood without experiencing at least one birthday party at Chuck E. Cheese. This retro T-shirt sports the brand’s original name: Chuck E. Cheese’s Pizza Time Theatre. It may be the next-best gift for a Chuck E. Cheese fan behind a decommissioned animatronic.

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9. The Nightmare Before Christmas Picnic Blanket Bag; $40

Shop Disney

Fans of Tim Burton’s The Nightmare Before Christmas will recognize the iconic scene on the front of this messenger bag. Unfold it and the bag becomes a blanket fit for a moonlit picnic among the pumpkins. The bottom side is waterproof and the top layer is made of soft fleece.

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10. Toy Story Alien Socks; $15

Shop Disney

You don’t need to be skilled at the claw machine to take home a pair of these socks. Decorated with the aliens from Toy Story, they’re made from soft-knit fabric and are big enough to fit adult feet.

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11. Goosebumps Board Game; $24

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Fans that read every book in R.L. Stine’s series growing up can now play the Goosebumps board game. In this game, based on the Goosebumps movie, players take on the role of their favorite monster from the series and race to the typewriter at the end of the trail of manuscripts.

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12. Tamagotchi Mini; $19

Amazon

If you know someone who killed their Tamagotchi in the '90s, give them another chance to show off their digital pet-care skills. This Tamagotchi is a smaller, simplified version of the original game. It doubles as a keychain, so owners have no excuse to forget to feed their pet.

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13. SNES Classic; $275

Amazon

The SNES Classic is much easier to find now than when it first came out, and it's still just as entertaining for retro video game fans. This mini console comes preloaded with 21 Nintendo games, including Super Mario Kart and Street Fighter II.

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14. Planters Cheez Balls; $24

Amazon

Planters revived its Cheez Balls in 2018 after pulling them from shelves nearly a decade earlier. To Millennials unaware of that fact, this gift could be their dream come true. The throwback snack even comes in the classic canister fans remember.

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10 Rad Gifts for Hikers

Greg Rosenke/Unsplash
Greg Rosenke/Unsplash

The popularity of bird-watching, camping, and hiking has skyrocketed this year. Whether your gift recipients are weekend warriors or seasoned dirtbags, they'll appreciate these tools and gear for getting most out of their hiking experience.

1. Stanley Nesting Two-Cup Cookset; $14

Amazon

Stanley’s compact and lightweight cookset includes a 20-ounce stainless steel pot with a locking handle, a vented lid, and two insulated 10-ounce tumblers. It’s the perfect size for brewing hot coffee, rehydrating soup, or boiling water while out on the trail with a buddy. And as some hardcore backpackers note in their Amazon reviews, your favorite hiker can take the tumblers out and stuff the pot with a camp stove, matches, and other necessities to make good use of space in their pack.

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2. Osprey Sirrus and Stratos 24-Liter Hiking Packs; $140

Amazon

Osprey’s packs are designed with trail-tested details to maximize comfort and ease of use. The Sirrus pack (pictured) is sized for women, while the Stratos fits men’s proportions. Both include an internal sleeve for a hydration reservoir, exterior mesh and hipbelt pockets, an attachment for carrying trekking poles, and a built-in rain cover.

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3. Yeti Rambler 18-Ounce Bottle; $48

Amazon

Nothing beats ice-cold water after a summer hike or a sip of hot tea during a winter walk. The Yeti Rambler can serve up both: Beverages can stay hot or cold for hours thanks to its insulated construction, and its steel body (in a variety of colors) is basically indestructible. It will add weight to your hiker's pack, though—for a lighter-weight, non-insulated option, the tried-and-true Camelbak Chute water bottle is incredibly sturdy and leakproof.

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4. Mappinners Greatest 100 Hikes of the National Parks Scratch-Off Poster; $30

Amazon

The perfect gift for park baggers in your life (or yourself), this 16-inch-by-20-inch poster features epic hikes like Angel’s Landing in Zion National Park and Half Dome in Yosemite National Park. Once the hike is complete, you can scratch off the gold foil to reveal an illustration of the park.

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5. National Geographic Adventure Edition Road Atlas; $19

Amazon

Hikers can use this brand-new, updated road atlas to plan their next adventure. In addition to comprehensive maps of all 50 states, Puerto Rico, Canada, and Mexico, they'll get National Geographic’s top 100 outdoor destinations, useful details about the most popular national parks, and points on the maps noting off-the-beaten-path places to explore.  

Buy it: Amazon

6. Adventure Medical Kits Hiker First-Aid Kit; $25

Amazon

This handy 67-piece kit is stuffed with all the things you hope your hiker will never need in the wilderness. Not only does it contain supplies for pain, cuts and scrapes, burns, and blisters (every hiker’s nemesis!), the items are organized clearly in the bag to make it easy to find tweezers or an alcohol wipe in an emergency.

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7. Hiker Hunger Ultralight Trekking Poles; $70

Amazon

Trekking poles will help increase your hiker's balance and stability and reduce strain on their lower body by distributing it to their arms and shoulders. This pair is made of carbon fiber, a super-strong and lightweight material. From the sweat-absorbing cork handles to the selection of pole tips for different terrain, these poles answer every need on the trail. 

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8. Leatherman Signal Camping Multitool; $120

Amazon

What can’t this multitool do? This gadget contains 19 hiking-friendly tools in a 4.5-inch package, including pliers, screwdrivers, bottle opener, saw, knife, hammer, wire cutter, and even an emergency whistle.

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9. RAVPower Power Bank; $24

Amazon

Don’t let your hiker get caught off the grid with a dead phone. They can charge RAVPower’s compact power bank before they head out on the trail, and then use it to quickly juice up a phone or tablet when the batteries get low. Its 3-inch-by-5-inch profile won’t take up much room in a pack or purse.

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10. Pack of Four Indestructible Field Books; $14

Amazon

Neither rain, nor snow, nor hail will be a match for these waterproof, tearproof 3.5-inch-by-5.5-inch notebooks. Your hiker can stick one in their pocket along with a regular pen or pencil to record details of their hike or brainstorm their next viral Tweet.

Buy it: Amazon

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