Thirty million Americans—about 9 percent of the country's population—are living with diabetes mellitus, or simply diabetes. This chronic condition is characterized by sustained high blood sugar levels. In many patients, symptoms can be managed with insulin injections and lifestyle changes, but in others, the complications can be deadly. Here's what you need to know about diabetes mellitus.
1. There are three types of diabetes.
In healthy people, the pancreas produces enough of the hormone insulin to metabolize sugars into glucose and move the glucose into cells, where it's used for energy.
But people with type 2 diabetes—the most common form of the disease, accounting for about 95 percent of cases—either can't produce enough insulin to transport the sugars, or their cells have become insulin-resistant. The result is a buildup of glucose in the blood (a.k.a. high blood sugar or hyperglycemia). Type 2 diabetes typically develops in adults.
Type 1 diabetes, also known as juvenile diabetes, makes up the remaining 5 percent of chronic cases and most often develops in children and young adults. With this condition, the initial problem isn’t blood sugar levels, but insulin production: The pancreas can’t make enough insulin to process even normal amounts of glucose. The sugar builds up as a result, leading to dangerous concentrations in the bloodstream.
The third form, gestational diabetes, only afflicts pregnant people who weren’t diabetic before their pregnancy. The mother's blood glucose levels usually spike around the 24th week of pregnancy, but with a healthy diet, exercise, and insulin shots in some cases, diabetes symptoms usually can be managed. Blood sugar levels tend to return to normal in patients following their pregnancies.
2. The mellitus in diabetes mellitus means "honey sweet."
Around 3000 years ago, ancient Egyptians described a condition with diabetes-like symptoms, though it wasn't called diabetes yet. It took a few hundred years before the Greek physician Araetus of Cappodocia came up with the name diabetes based on the Greek word for "passing through" (as in passing a lot of urine, a common diabetes symptom). English doctor Thomas Willis tacked on the word mellitus, meaning "honey sweet," in 1675, building on previous physicians' observations that diabetic patients had sweet urine. Finally, in 1776, another English physician named Matthew Dobson confirmed that both the blood and urine of diabetes patients were made sweeter by high levels of glucose in their blood.
3. The cause of one type of diabetes is well understood; the other, not so much.
A person’s lifestyle is a key predictor of developing type 2 diabetes. Factors like being overweight or obese, consuming a high-calorie diet, smoking, and seldom exercising contribute to the risk. Foods and drinks that are high in sugar—soda, candy, ice cream, dessert— may contribute to hyperglycemia, but any food that’s high in calories, even if it's not sweet, can raise blood sugar levels.
In contrast to these well-established factors, medical experts aren’t entirely sure what causes type 1 diabetes. We do know that type 1 is an autoimmune disease that develops when the body attacks and damages insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Some scientists think that environmental factors, like viruses, may trigger this immune response.
4. Family history also plays a role in diabetes risk.
If a parent or sibling has type 2 diabetes, you are predisposed to developing pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle habits explain some of these incidences, since family members may share similar diets and exercise habits. Genetics also play a role, but just because one close relative has diabetes does not mean you're destined to. Research conducted on identical twins, which share identical genes, showed that the pairs have discordant risk. Among twins in which one has type 1 diabetes, the other has only a 50 percent chance of developing it; for type 2, the risk for the second twin is 75 percent at most.
5. Racial minorities are at a higher risk for developing diabetes.
Many racial minority groups in the U.S. have a higher chance of developing type 2 diabetes. Black Americans, Latino Americans, Native Americans, Pacific Islanders, and some groups of Asian Americans are more likely to have pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes than white Americans. This can be partly explained by the fact that some of these groups also have higher rates of obesity, which is one of the primary risk factors of type 2 diabetes. Socioeconomics may also play a role: One study shows that people with diabetes living in poverty are less likely to visit diabetes clinics and receive proper testing than their middle-income counterparts. According to another study, diabetic people without health insurance have higher blood sugar, blood pressure, and cholesterol rates than insured diabetics. Genetics, on the other hand, don’t appear to contribute to these trends.
6. Diabetes is one of the world's deadliest diseases.
With proper management, people with diabetes can live long, comfortable lives. But if the disease isn’t treated, it can have dire consequences. Diabetics make up the majority of people who develop chronic kidney disease, have adult-onset blindness, and need lower-limb amputations. In the most serious cases, diabetes leads to death. The condition is one of the deadliest diseases in the world, killing more people than breast cancer and AIDS combined.
7. Millions of Americans are pre-diabetic.
According to the CDC, 84 million adults living in the U.S. are pre-diabetic: Their blood sugar is higher than what’s considered safe, but hasn't yet reached diabetic level. In pre-diabetic patients, blood glucose levels after eight hours of fasting fall between 100 and 125 milligrams per deciliter, and diabetic levels are anything above that. People with pre-diabetes are not just at a greater risk for type 2 diabetes, but also for heart disease and stroke. Fortunately, people who are diagnosed with pre-diabetes can take steps to eat a healthier diet, increase physical activity, and test their blood glucose level several times a day to control the condition. In some cases, doctors will prescribe drugs like metformin that make the body more receptive to the insulin it produces.
8. After climbing for decades, rates of diabetes incidence are declining.
In the U.S., the rate of new diagnoses skyrocketed 382 percent between 1988 and 2014. Globally, 108 million people had diabetes in 1980, but by 2014 that number was 422 million.
But thanks to nationwide education and prevention efforts, the trend has reversed in the U.S., according to the CDC. Since peaking in 2009, the number of new diabetes cases in America has dropped by 35 percent. In that same timeframe, the number of people living with diagnosed diabetes in the U.S. has plateaued, suggesting people with the condition are living longer.
9. The first successful treatment for type 1 diabetes occurred in 1922.
Prior to the 20th century, type 1 diabetes was usually fatal. Diabetic ketoacidosis—a toxic buildup of chemicals called ketones, which arise when the body can no longer use glucose and instead breaks down other tissues for energy—killed most patients within a year or two of diagnosis. In searching for way to save children with juvenile (type 1) diabetes, Canadian physician Frederick Banting and medical student Charles Best built on the work of earlier researchers, who had demonstrated that removing the pancreas from a dog immediately caused diabetes symptoms in the animal. Banting and Best extracted insulin from dog pancreases in University of Toronto professor J.J.R. Macleod's lab. After injecting the insulin back into dogs whose pancreases had been removed, they realized the hormone regulated blood sugar levels. On January 11, 1922, they administered insulin to a human patient, and further refined the extract to reduce side effects. In 1923, Banting and Macleod received the Nobel Prize in Medicine for their work.
10. A pioneering physicist discovered the difference between type and and type 1 diabetes.
In the 1950s, physicist Rosalyn Yalow and her research partner Solomon Berson developed a method for measuring minute amounts of substances in blood. Inspired by Yalow's husband's struggle with diabetes, Yalow focused her research on insulin. Their "radioimmunoassay" technology revealed that some diabetes patients were still able to produce their own insulin, leading them to create two separate categories for the disease: “insulin-dependent” (type 1) and “non-insulin-dependent” (type 2). Prior to that discovery in 1959, there was no distinction between the two types. In 1977, Yalow won the 1977 Nobel Prize in Medicine for the radioimmunoassay, one of only 12 female Nobel laureates in medicine.
11. Making one insulin dose once required tons of pig parts.
Insulin is relatively easy to make today. Most of what's used in injections comes from a special non-disease-producing laboratory strain of E. coli bacteria that's been genetically modified to produce insulin, but that wasn't always the case. Until about 40 years ago, 2 tons of pig pancreases were required to produce just 8 ounces of pure insulin. The pig parts were typically recycled from pork farms.
12. A quarter of diabetes patients don’t know they have it.
The symptoms of type 2 diabetes can develop for years before patients think to ask their doctor about them. These include frequent urination, unexplained thirst, numbness in the extremities, dry skin, blurry vision, fatigue, and sores that are slow to heal—signs that may not be a cause for concern on their own, but together can indicate a more serious problem. Patients with type 1 diabetes may also experience nausea, vomiting, and stomach pain.
While serious, the symptoms of diabetes are sometimes easy to overlook. That’s why 25 percent of people with the illness, 7.2 million in the U.S., are undiagnosed. And that number doesn’t even cover the majority of people with pre-diabetes who aren’t aware they’re on their way to becoming diabetic.
Daily life has changed immeasurably since the onset of COVID-19, and one of the ways people have had to adjust is by wearing protective masks out in public places, including in parks and supermarkets. These are an essential part of fighting the spread of the virus, and there are plenty of options for you depending on what you need, whether your situation calls for disposable masks to run quick errands or the more long-lasting KN95 model if you're going to work. Check out some options you can pick up on sale right now.
1. Cotton Face Masks; $20 for 4
This four-pack of washable cotton face masks comes in tie-dye, kids patterns, and even a series of mustache patterns, so you can do your part to mask germs without also covering your personality.
You’ve likely heard about the N95 face mask and its important role in keeping frontline workers safe. Now, you can get a similar model for yourself. The KN95 has a dual particle layer, which can protect you from 99 percent of particles in the air and those around you from 70 percent of the particles you exhale. Nose clips and ear straps provide security and comfort, giving you some much-needed peace of mind.
These three-ply, non-medical, non-woven face masks provide a moisture-proof layer against your face with strong filtering to keep you and everyone around you safe. The middle layer filters non-oily particles in the air and the outer layer works to block visible objects, like droplets.
If the thought of reusing the same mask from one outing to the next makes you feel uneasy, there’s a disposable option that doesn’t compromise quality; in fact, it uses the same three-layered and non-woven protection as other masks to keep you safe from airborne particles. Each mask in this pack of 50 can be worn safely for up to 10 hours. Once you're done, safely dispose of it and start your next outing with a new one.
These masks are a blend of 95 percent polyester and 5 percent spandex, and they work to block particles from spreading in the air. And because they're easily compressed, they can travel with you in your bag or pocket, whether you're going to work or out to the store.
You're going to need to have a stash of masks on hand for the foreseeable future, so it's a good idea to protect the ones you’ve got. This face mask protector case is waterproof and dust-proof to preserve your mask as long as possible.
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The constant stream of information about the novel coronavirus and COVID-19 can cause a lot of anxiety. Mental Floss created this semiweekly digest so you can peruse the news at your own pace—without feeling overwhelmed.
June 5, 2020
A study that found COVID-19 patients who took hydrochloroquine had an increased risk of death has been retracted, NPR reports. Originally published in The Lancet, the study prompted the World Heath Organization to halt its own study of the malaria drug for treating COVID-19. But researchers raised questions about the accuracy of the study’s patient data, which came from a private company called Surgisphere and whose founder is listed as one of the study’s authors. More from NPR here.
Speaking of studies, science journalist Carl Zimmer dives into the history of scientific journals and how new research gets published—an important primer for the current flood of breaking coronavirus news.
People in Zambia speak more than 70 languages, and most speak a Bantu dialect. But public health alerts about preventing the spread of coronavirus were delivered in English, the country’s official language, causing many to miss the message. Sister Astridah Banda, a Catholic nun, had a solution: she started a radio program to broadcast health advice in multiple languages, and it became a hit. NPR’s Goats and Soda has more.
Finally, summer is almost here, though that may be hard to believe. Here are a few practical tips for wearing masks—which can trap heat and sweat on your face—more comfortably in warm weather.
June 2, 2020
Researchers around the world are still trying to figure out what makes the new coronavirus so contagious and so lethal. Early on, physicians thought the virus was primarily a respiratory virus affecting the lungs. But with other symptoms beginning to emerge—blood clots, “Covid toes,” and a syndrome in children resembling Kawasaki disease—some researchers are beginning to think that COVID-19 is a disease of the blood vessels instead. Medium explains.
If you’ve had COVID-19 and present antibodies, does that mean you’re immune from another infection? How long does immunity last? What is immunity, exactly? Katherine J. Wu, who has a Ph.D. in microbiology and immunobiology from Harvard, breaks downthe complicated ways our immune system protects us from pathogens.
Pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly has started the first human trial of a COVID-19 treatment based on antibodies. According to CNN, the Phase 1 trial will test the safety of a lab-engineered monoclonal antibody therapy that was based on antibodies sampled from COVID-19 survivors. Results of the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial will be known later this month.
Finally, Dr. Anthony Fauci talks with STAT's Helen Branswell about the state of “warp speed” coronavirus vaccine research and other hot topics in a characteristically forthright interview.
May 29, 2020
Japan declared a national emergency in early April to combat the spread of coronavirus. Now, a few days before the order was set to expire, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe is lifting the state of emergency in all but eight of Japan’s 47 prefectures. See how public health efforts to root out “clusters” of COVID-19 contained the disease in this Science article.
Many Americans are still waiting to receive their stimulus payments from the government, and a few who have received the stimulus funds have mistaken the letters for scams or junk mail. The Washington Postdescribes the anonymous envelopes and debit cards linked to the “Money Network Cardholder Services of Omaha, Nebraska” arriving in mailboxes with little indication they’re actually from the U.S. Treasury. The IRS has posted a FAQ with info about the stimulus payment debit cards, and if you’ve received one, here are some answers about activating and using it.
Businesses and offices around the world are beginning to reopen, which necessitates creative solutions for maintaining social distancing among employees and customers. The CDC has just issued guidelines for redesigning office spaces in the pandemic, some of which seem doable (such as adding clear dividers between closely-spaced desks) and some that seem well-nigh impossible (keeping people six feet apart in elevators and getting rid of communal coffee makers). And in France, a designer has come up with a similar tool for restaurant patrons: these giant Plexiglass “lampshades” that shield wearers from other people’s droplets.
Finally, it’s Friday, and most of us are still stuck at home. Now would be a great time to adopt the Swedish tradition of Fredagsmys, loosely translated as “Taco Friday.” Swedes gather together on Friday nights to eat tacos and watch movies with their families, and really, is that so different from what we may already be doing? Here are a few recommendations for awesome heist flicks to start your own Taco Friday.
May 26, 2020
Coronavirus travel restrictions have trapped a Bolivian orchestra at a German palace since mid-March, CNN reports. When the Orquesta Experimental de Instrumentos Nativos left South America, Bolivia had registered no cases of COVID-19 and Germany was still accepting international flights. But days after their arrival, the musicians failed to get on one of the last flights out of Germany before Bolivia closed its borders. Since then, they’ve been staying in the guesthouse at Rheinsberg Palace, a rococo-style castle surrounded by picturesque grounds in northeastern Germany. We can think of worse places to be quarantined.
More cities and states are allowing certain business to reopen during the continuing coronavirus pandemic. The New York Times has a frequently updated, state-by-state guide to the new rules.
Just FYI, rats are becoming more aggressive in their search for food. The Washington Postreports that the urban rodents are having a hard time with bars and restaurants closed, since they’re not producing the garbage and food scraps the rats would normally feast upon. In extreme cases, rats are even turning to cannibalism. Here are the CDC’s new guidelines for keeping them away from your trash cans.
Speaking of nature, a new article in Scientific American looks into how the environment will record the coronavirus pandemic. In a recent example, scientists examining Alpine ice cores discovered that the amount of lead pollution in the atmosphere decreased suddenly only once in 2000 years: between 1349 and 1353, when the Black Death engulfed Europe. In the future, tree rings and ice cores might show a remarkable decrease in greenhouse gas emissions in early 2020.
May 22, 2020
In two new studies published in the journal Science, researchers at Boston’s Beth Israel Deaconness Medical Center report promising results in battling the new coronavirus. For the first experiment, nine rhesus macaques were exposed to the new coronavirus and came down with COVID-19. After they recovered, researchers again exposed them to the virus, and the monkeys did not get sick—suggesting that they developed antibodies that protected them from reinfection. In the second study, researchers gave six experimental vaccines to 25 monkeys, then exposed those animals and 10 control monkeys to the virus. The vaccinated subjects showed “a substantial degree of protection,” one of the researchers told Reuters. Larger studies and human subjects will be the likely next step.
“Oh sh*t,” tweeted one virologist when she saw this study confirming the presence of infectious coronavirus particles in human poop. It gets worse: The study authors suggest that more research into “fecal-oral or fecal-respiratory transmission” of the coronavirus is warranted. And in a possibly related development, fatbergs may present another problem for treating coronavirus-contaminated sewage.
Have mask, will travel.
Fabiomichelecapelli/iStock via Getty Images
Memorial Day Weekend is here, though it still seems like mid-March because time and space are meaningless now. If you happen to be planning a summer road trip for 2020, follow these tips from The Washington Post, which suggest that vacations will be masked and sanitized for the foreseeable future. Here are a few more ideas.
Finally, if your summer vacation is going to be spent at home, check out these goods for a fun backyard movie night.
May 19, 2020
Remember the plight of the USS Theodore Roosevelt, the naval aircraft carrier whose captain pleaded with authorities to rescue his coronavirus-infected crew? (And then the captain was fired, and then the guy who fired him was fired, and then the captain was rehired in a different role?) It’s finally leaving port and heading back out to sea.
Speaking of aircraft, are planes safer than a car for travel these days? Medium talks to experts and finds that it really comes down to how tightly the vehicle is packed with non-related people.
And now that airlines and many other entities are requiring people to wear masks in public, you’ll need these tips for properly laundering your fabric face coverings.
Finally, a potential coronavirus vaccine from the pharmaceutical company Moderna has shown some positive results in a preliminary test. The Phase 1 trial in eight volunteers showed the vaccine at low doses was safe for use, but did not gauge its effectiveness or final dosage. The New York Timesreports that the participants had a strong immune reaction to the vaccine and produced antibodies. Much larger Phase 2 and 3 trials scheduled to begin the summer will evaluate the vaccine’s efficacy.
May 15, 2020
A French dairy trade group is urging cheese lovers in France to fromagissons—basically, “let us act for cheese!”—to help farmers during the coronavirus pandemic. Citizens can do their part by scarfing down cheese from the regions of Saint-Nectaire, Reblochon, Cantal, and Camembert that would otherwise go to waste. BRB, moving to France …
Quarantine fatigue is sweeping the nation. Inverse talks to three experts about what this special type of fatigue looks like and offers some options for getting through it.
One way to battle quar exhaustion that seems to be working for us: Looking at these adorable baby animals born during the pandemic. CNN has the scoop on a newborn zebra at Disney’s Animal Kingdom theme park in Florida, two blue penguin chicks at the Bronx Zoo, and baby bison at Custer State Park in South Dakota. Personally, I’m in love with Sami the porcupette and her mom, Samantha, who were rescued by workers at Newhouse Wildlife Rescue in April.
Apparently, a segment of the male population is not OK with wearing face masks, despite numerous cities and states mandating masks in public to slow the spread of COVID-19 and statistics showing men are more susceptible to the disease. According to a non-peer-reviewed paper on PsyArXiv, men more than women were likely to view wearing a mask as “shameful, not cool, a sign of weakness, and a stigma.” You know what’s also a sign of weakness? Not being able to breathe because your lungs are filled with fluid!
And one more cautionary tale to take you into the weekend: a woman in Italy found out the hard way that drinking hand sanitizer does not protect you from coronavirus infection. The unnamed woman sipped two teaspoons of alcohol-based sanitizer every day for more than three weeks, then had to go to the emergency room for extreme abdominal pain. Doctors found “corrosive injury” to her digestive system. A better idea: wash your hands.
May 12, 2020
A new, free online course from Johns Hopkins University teaches the basics of contact tracing—which involves interviewing COVID-19 patients and determining whom they’ve been around. It’s one of the most important tools for stopping the spread of the new coronavirus. Once they’ve earned their certificate of course completion, students will be primed to apply for one of the thousands of contact tracer jobs in U.S. cities. The Washington Postreports that up to 100,000 contact tracers will be required to fight the pandemic, with as many as 10,000 needed in New York City (and there, the gig pays $57,000 a year [PDF]).
If you live in New York, Maryland, or another state that has required people to wear face coverings in public, perhaps you’ve noticed the extreme variety in mask styles—from surgical masks to bandanas to homemade masks to hazmat respirators. NBC has some tips for choosing and buying a face mask, but the main thing to remember is that they won’t keep you completely safe from the new coronavirus. You still have wash your hands and practice social distancing if you need to leave home.
Maksim Axelrod, The Sill
Last week, houseplant boutique The Sill teamed up with Frontline Strong Relief and the orchid brand Just Add Ice to donate 10,000 orchids to healthcare workers in New York City’s Mount Sinai Hospital Network. Noting the mood-boosting power of plants, The Sill founder and CEO Eliza Blank said the gift is their way of thanking the city’s essential workers as well as celebrating Mother’s Day in the midst of a global crisis.
Certain segments of the internet have been swooning over Dr. Anthony Fauci’s no-nonsense handling of the coronavirus crisis, but a steamy 1991 romance novel called Happy Endings was there first. Famed D.C. hostess and author Sally Quinn based her handsome NIH scientist who has an affair with the widowed first lady on Fauci, just as Fauci was at the NIH developing treatments for AIDS. Washingtonian has the details.
Finally, as if it didn’t already feel like we’re living in a science fiction dystopia, check out the best sci-fi movies on Netflix right now.
May 8, 2020
The FDA gave emergency-use approval to a new CRISPR-based test that can diagnose COVID-19 in one hour, much faster than the six to eight hours of some current tests, Emily Mullin reports in Medium. CRISPR is a gene-editing technology that uses a molecular “guide” to find and target DNA and remove it from its sequence. In the new test, developed by Sherlock Biosciences, the molecular guide is sent to find the novel coronavirus’s genetic signature in a nose or throat swab. If it locates the signature, the guide releases a signal indicating a positive result. Its developers say the test can be run using standard lab equipment.
Last week, several news outlets reported some younger COVID-19 patients developing serious blood clots or even having strokes while being otherwise healthy. It turns out that blood clots may not be such an unusual symptom of infectious disease, Roxanne Khamsi writes in WIRED. As far back as 1903, physicians noted the presence of clogged blood vessels in people with typhoid fever or bacterial diseases. So why is it so surprising now in COVID-19 patients? “It may be on account of our success at treating such [bacterial] infections,” Khamsi says.
The military is temporarily banning recruits who have been hospitalized with COVID-19 from joining any of the armed forces, according to a Pentagon memo reported by The New York Times. Military officials may reconsider the guidance in the future, once more facts are known about the virus’s long-term effects in patients.
Let’s end on a positive note, shall we? The World Naked Bike Ride will go on, despite the pandemic—at least in Portland, Oregon. While other cities have canceled the event, Portland’s organizers are encouraging nude cyclists to participate on June 27 while maintaining proper social distancing.
May 5, 2020
With so many families unable to visit loved ones in hospitals and nursing homes, some folks are getting creative with their means of connection. When his mother couldn’t visit her 95-year-old father in a Toronto hospital, Avi Minkowitz asked his friend to drive his cherry-picker truck to the facility. His mom got into the bucket and was hoisted up three stories so she could see her beloved dad outside his third-floor window. Read more in this heartwarming essay.
New York City officials began distributing 7.5 million free masks to residents last weekend after the mayor said hospitals and health care workers were adequately supplied with PPE. People can pick up the masks in parks, schools, and food distribution centers (check here for a map of giveaway points in parks). All New Yorkers are required to wear a face covering in public, especially in scenarios where social distancing is difficult.
Tracy Wilk wanted to help out on the front lines of the coronavirus pandemic, but she’s a chef, not a doctor. So she launched a campaign, Bake It Forward, while furloughed from her job as an instructor at the Institute of Culinary Education. Wilk creates batches of delicious cookies and gives them to nurses, physicians, and hospital staff who need a little pick-me-up. “A lot of those health care workers have been working overtime. I’ve done those days before in the kitchen,” Wilk toldGood Morning America. “A cookie isn’t going to change it, but it’s going to help workers on the front lines, and those little bits of joy are what makes the day better.”
As we learn more about the novel coronavirus, “COVID toes” is emerging as a possible new symptom. Some people have exhibited reddish lesions on their toes and then tested positive for COVID-19 without showing the typical signs of infection, such as a fever or dry cough. According to the Cleveland Clinic, those with “COVID toes” or unexplained rashes should contact their doctor and seek a coronavirus test.
Finally, are you feeling cooped up? Commiserate with the casts of these single-location movies (like my favorite on the list, Alfred Hitchcock’s Rope).
May 1, 2020
People quarantining at home are feeding their sweet tooths (or is it teeth?). Sales of Kellogg’s breakfast cereals, which include Special K, Frosted Mini-Wheats, Pop Tarts Cereal, and many more, increased 3 percent in its latest earnings report thanks to the pandemic, the company said. Frozen food sales jumped 9 percent.
Stressed-out, home-bound parents are turning to Zoom babysitters when they need a break from working, teaching, and childcare. One sitter told The Washington Post that the most difficult part of the job was getting kids back in front of the screen when they wander off.
An NIH study of more than 1000 COVID-19 patients showed that the antiviral drug remdesivir reduced hospital stays to average of 11 days compared to 15 days for patients who received a placebo. The death rate was not reduced significantly. While the results of the study were modest, Dr. Anthony Fauci told reporters that “it is a very important proof of concept, because what it has proven is that a drug can block this virus.”
Could drive-in movie theaters make a comeback? With traditional cinemas closed across the country, drive-ins offer the thrill of a summer blockbuster in the sanitized safety of your vehicle, with a dash of mid-century nostalgia thrown in. About 300 still exist, including the Family Drive-In Theatre near Winchester, Virginia, which has recently sold out its weekend shows of Sonic the Hedgehog.
Finally, if you’re bored with your cereal-based isolation diet, plug in your Instant Pot and try making these nine concoctions.
April 28, 2020
The CDC added six symptoms to its list of common signs of possible COVID-19 infection. Along with fever, cough, and shortness of breath, the new list includes chills, repeated shaking with chills, muscle pain, headache, sore throat, and loss of smell or taste. NPR reports that the expanded list of symptoms might allow more people to qualify for coronavirus testing, since people generally need to show signs of infection to be tested. One scary potential symptom is not yet included: blood clots that are leading to strokes in younger, otherwise mildly symptomatic COVID-19 patients. The Washington Post has that story.
Preliminary results from an Oxford University-based effort to develop a vaccine against the new coronavirus are promising, The New York Times reveals. Six rhesus macaque monkeys were given an experimental vaccine, exposed to copious amounts of the virus, and remained healthy. Human trials are next.
N95 masks have been in short supply since the pandemic began, so a group of Boston-based researchers set about finding a simple way to decontaminate masks for reuse. In a not-yet-peer-reviewed paper appearing on the preprint server medRxiv, they suggest that steaming a mask in the microwave over a dish of hydrogen peroxide effectively removed viral particles. While the method hasn’t been tested on a large scale, it could present a way for individual healthcare workers to reuse previously worn masks.
If your wedding has been scaled back or canceled due to the coronavirus pandemic—and if you really, really love Miller High Life—have we got a contest for you. The beer brand is giving away “doorstep” weddings to three couples, which include the services of an officiant and photographer and $10,000 for a sometime-in-the-future honeymoon. See the company’s website for details about entering.
We’re still anticipating the return of toilet paper to store shelves. Now, Business Insider reports that the supply of disinfectant wipes and other cleaning products might not come back to pre-pandemic levels until late summer. Brush up on these tips for disinfecting your home while you wait.
Finally, if you’re running out of ways to entertain—I mean educate—your kids at home, try these fun and informative science experiments.
April 24, 2020
Doctors and nurses have self-isolated in RVs and hotel rooms to avoid bringing the new coronavirus into their own families. But one doctor in Texas may be having a slightly more fun time that most in quarantine: He’s camping out in his sons’ treehouse, conveniently located within shouting distance of his actual home. ER doctor Jason Barnes told the Corpus Christie Caller Times that his wife cooks meals for him and leaves them on a table outside, where he “[grabs] it before the dogs can get it.”
You might be wearing your mask wrong. If your mask only covers your mouth or hangs around your neck while you talk on the phone, you’re not using it properly. The Huffington Post has some tips to get the most out of your cloth face covering—and also offers hints about the best fabrics for making your own. And, NPR reports on a not-yet-peer-reviewed study that suggests wearing a nylon stocking over your cloth mask keeps the mask tighter on your face and more effective at restraining your spittle.
Walmart and grocery stores are putting one-way traffic signs in their aisles to help shoppers move in a single direction throughout the stores, which is meant to encourage social distancing. At least two Mental Floss editors have recently witnessed very little adherence to the rules, though. Maybe the stores need to hire crossing guards.
A study highlighted last week in this digest found that cats were more susceptible to the virus than other mammals and birds. Now, the USDA is reporting that two pet kitties in different areas of New York State have tested positive for the coronavirus after visiting their vets with respiratory symptoms. There is still no evidence that people can contract COVID-19 from their pets. Fortunately, the two cats are expected to make a full recovery.
Finally, you may be sitting on a hoard on quarantine-related nonperishables right now, but those canned goods won’t last forever. Just look at what happened to this one.
April 21, 2020
You may be feeling stir-crazy after a few weeks of home quarantine, but you have probably had it easier than six tourists in India who were found self-isolating in a cave. The visitors—from France, Turkey, Nepal, Ukraine, and the U.S.—had run out of money for their hotel rooms. Officials took them to a nearby ashram and told them to quarantine for another two weeks.
Schoolkids in Britain can take a virtual geography class with naturalist extraordinaire Sir David Attenborough. The dulcet-voiced narrator of Blue Planet II and Seven Worlds, One Planet will teach pupils about mapping, animal behavior, and oceanography on the BBC’s Bitesize Daily.
Should you disinfect your deliveries?The New York Times offers useful tips on when or if to treat common surfaces, like cardboard boxes, your shoes, and your hair, with antiviral solutions. Bonus: The Times’s how-to guide for washing your clothes at home.
There are many things we still don’t know about the novel coronavirus, including how well it is spread by different methods. Words like airborne and aerosol get thrown around a lot, but their meanings aren’t always clear. Check out this explainer on some coronavirus terminology you should know.
Finally, a Colorado indie bookstore is helping readers discover new novels and authors during lockdown. For $50, Trident Booksellers and Cafe in Boulder will deliver a mystery bag of four to six books (plus a packet of tea or coffee beans) based on the customer’s preferred literary genre. Here are some more ways to help local bookstores stay afloat.
April 17, 2020
A 99-year-old World War II veteran in Britain vowed to raise money for the UK’s National Health Service (NHS) by walking 100 laps around his garden. On April 16, Captain Tom Moore completed his mission and raised a whopping £13 million ($16 million) for the public health service. Moore had started out on April 8 with a goal to raise £1000—but when supporters donated £70,000 in the first 24 hours, he upped his objective to £1 million. As The Guardianreports, Moore completed the last 25 laps on live television accompanied by a guard of honor from the 1st Battalion of the Yorkshire Regiment, Moore’s own regiment in the war. Now, his supporters are asking Queen Elizabeth II to give him a special commendation. And he turns 100 on April 30!
Another enterprising senior, quarantined 93-year-old Pennsylvania resident Olive Veronesi, put a plea in her window: “I need more beer!” Coors Light answered the call and promptly delivered 150 cans. “I was on my last 12 cans, I have a beer every night, you know what, beer has vitamins in it, it’s good for you, as long as you don’t overdo it,” Veronesi told KDKA. Similarly, 82-year-old Ontarian Annette Muller implored her daughter to run to the store with a sign in her window reading “need more wine.”
In more feel-good news, a Michelin-starred Copenhagen restaurant that usually features a $700 tasting menu is feeding the city’s homeless population instead.
An anonymous donor bought each of the 549 households in Earlham, Iowa, $150 in gift cards to spend at local businesses—a present totaling more than $82,000. “I don’t believe ‘thank you’ is a big enough word,” Mayor Jeff Lillie toldThe Washington Post.
Finally, Facebook is directing users who have interacted with posts containing coronavirus misinformation to websites with facts from the World Health Organization. A Facebook official said in a blog post that 2 billion users have been directed and 350 million have clicked through to the factual sites. Here are some other companies doing their part during the crisis.
April 14, 2020
The coronavirus pandemic has hit the U.S. economy hard, but some small business owners are devising creative ways to help their staff. The owner of a Tybee Island, Georgia, bar spent three days un-stapling dollar bills—totaling more than $3000—from the walls and ceiling to give to her workers.
Speaking of workers: Some newly unemployed and furloughed folks are creating online communities to help their peersget through the labyrinth of state labor websites and unemployment benefits.
Precious, precious toilet paper
NataliaDeriabina/iStock via Getty Images
The Great Toilet Paper Shortage continues, but apparently some people are finding it at Walmart. The company’s CEO, Doug McMillon, told NBC’s Savannah Guthrie on April 10 that Walmart consumers boughtenough toilet paper in five days to give every American a roll. (That’s about 328 million rolls, or 328 billion individual squares if every roll had 1000 sheets.)
Cats can catch coronavirus. A Chinese study in the journal Science found that the novel coronavirus replicates easily in cats and ferrets (which often stand in for humans in respiratory studies), but not as well in dogs, pigs, chickens, or ducks. More research is needed, though.
By now you’ve probably heard your city’s or state’s recommendations for using a face covering or mask when you’re outside—and glasses wearers have surely discovered their lenses fogging up while wearing one. Here are a few tips for wearing a mask and glasses at the same time.
April 10, 2020
The toilet paper shortage is real—but your credit card company might be able to help you squeeze the Charmin. Finder.com reports that high-end credit cards like the Chase Sapphire Reserve and the MasterCard Gold Card offer concierge services to help cardmembers make dinner reservations, travel arrangements, and other transactions. In a small experiment, three Finder.com staffers asked their card company’s concierge to find the nearest store with toilet paper on the shelves. Two concierges were able to call around and unearth the white gold.
A Marine veteran didn’t let the coronavirus pandemic interrupt her 104th birthday celebration, according to WMC Action News 5 in Memphis, Tennessee. Ruth Gallivan, believed to be one of the oldest female Marines, served in World War II. The veterans’ organization Honor Flight surprised her by putting together a drive-by car parade and wished her many happy returns.
Wondering how you can help essential workers during the pandemic, besides just staying home? Buy a meal for a medical professional during the pandemic through Feed the Frontlines, founded by a New York City restaurateur to make and deliver meals to hard-working doctors, nurses, and hospital staff (and to keep restaurants in business). You can also donate directly to NYC Health + Hospitals, where so many COVID-19 patients receive treatment.
Finally, your pantry staples might be running a little low after a month on lockdown. If you’re planning a run to the grocery store, follow these simple precautions to reduce the chance of bringing home the coronavirus along with your bread and dry beans.
April 7, 2020
Almost 24 million people watched Queen Elizabeth II deliver a personal televised message about the coronavirus pandemic on Sunday, April 5. The queen thanked healthcare workers and those staying at home for their continued efforts in battling the outbreak, and said this address reminded her of her very first TV broadcast in 1940, when she offered a message to children who had been sent overseas for their own safety at the beginning of World War II. "We should take comfort that while we may have more still to endure, better days will return," the queen said. "We will be with our friends again. We will be with our families again. We will meet again." The queen rarely gives televised speeches apart from her annual Christmas message—this broadcast was only her fifth in her 68-year reign.
A tiger at the Bronx Zoo in New York City tested positive for COVID-19, the disease caused by the new coronavirus. The zoo's chief vet Paul Calle tweeted that Nadia, a 4-year-old Malayan tiger, had tests confirmed at the USDA's National Veterinary Services Laboratory after showing respiratory symptoms. Three other tigers exhibited the same symptoms, and zoo officials believe the big cats were exposed to the virus by an asymptomatic zoo employee. The Wildlife Conservation Society, which operates the Bronx Zoo, expects all the cats to fully recover. In a press release, the USDA said it's unlikely that your pet cat could transmit the virus to you, but if you feel sick, it's best to stay away from Fluffy as long as you have symptoms.
Oscar-winning actor and University of Texas at Austin professorMatthew McConaughey hosted bingo night (via Zoom) for a group of residents at The Enclave at Round Rock, a senior living community in a suburb of Austin. Along with his wife, mom, and kids, McConaughey called out the numbers while the quarantined seniors played along at home.
Should you be wearing a mask when you go outside? The answer is complicated, but New York City's mayor has begun urging residents to wear a fabric face covering to reduce the chance the virus could spread through breathing or talking. Recent research suggests presymptomatic people could transmit the coronavirus more easily through aerosols than previously thought.